CAI Baigen, WU Boqian, LU Debiao. Survey of Performance Evaluation Standardization and Research Methods on GNSS-Based Localization for Railways[J]. Chinese Journal of Electronics, 2020, 29(1): 22-33. doi: 10.1049/cje.2019.09.003
Citation: CAI Baigen, WU Boqian, LU Debiao. Survey of Performance Evaluation Standardization and Research Methods on GNSS-Based Localization for Railways[J]. Chinese Journal of Electronics, 2020, 29(1): 22-33. doi: 10.1049/cje.2019.09.003

Survey of Performance Evaluation Standardization and Research Methods on GNSS-Based Localization for Railways

doi: 10.1049/cje.2019.09.003
Funds:  This work is supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No.2018YFB1201500) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.61603027, No.U1734203, No.61490705).
More Information
  • Corresponding author: LU Debiao (corresponding author) was born in Jiangsu, China, in 1986. received the B.S. degree in telecommunication engineering and the M.S. degree in traffic information engineering and control from Beijing Jiaotong University, in 2008 and 2010, respectively, where he is currently an associate professor with the School of Electronic and Information Engineering. He received the Ph.D. degree with the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universtät Braunschweig, under the Guidance of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Eckehard Schnieder, from 2010 to 2014. His research interests include satellite positioning and safety relevant GNSS certification for transport applications. (Email:debiao.lu@bjtu.edu.cn)
  • Received Date: 2019-04-01
  • Rev Recd Date: 2019-07-19
  • Publish Date: 2020-01-10
  • Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) has been regarded as a key technology for train localization in the future, as GNSS-based localization can reduce the deployment of wayside equipment, and offer a high-accuracy determination in a cost effective way. However, the standardization of GNSS-based localization performance characteristics has not been done in railway. This can restrict the development of GNSS for safety related applications, which need critical requirement for the. The main objective of this paper is to provide a survey of research dealing with performance evaluation standardization. Train localization technique and performance requirement in Chinese train control system (CTCS), GNSS performance characteristics suggested in standards and guidelines, characteristics of accuracy/integrity/reliability/availability/safety for GNSS-based train localization and related evaluation approaches are presented. Some issues in GNSS-based train localization are highlighted based on the survey.
  • loading
  • European GNSS Agency, "GNSS market report:issue 5", available at https://www.gsa.europa.eu/system/files/reports/gnss_mr_2017.pdf, 2017.
    R. Libbrecht, H. Sturesson, "LOCOPROL deliverable D 1.1 final report", available at https://trimis.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/project/documents/20060727_153639_69273_LOCOPROL_Final_Report.pdf, 2006.
    G. Barbu, J. Marais, "the SATLOC project", available at https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00987106/document, 2014.
    H. Manz, E. Schnieder, D. Stein, et al., "GaLoROI. Satellite based localization in railways", IC-ARE'15, International Congress on Advanced Railway Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey, 2015.
    European Union, "Shift2Rail multi-annual action plan", available at https://shift2rail.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Maap_2018_FINAL_2.pdf, 2018.
    J. Marais, J. Beugin, and M. Berbineau, "A survey of GNSSbased research and developments for the european railway signaling", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol.18, No.10, pp.2602-2618, 2017.
    China Satellite Navigation Office, "Development of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Ver. 3.0", 2018.
    Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China, "Comprehensive transportation system development plan in the thirteen five year", available at http://www.mot.gov.cn/zhuanti/shisanwujtysfzgh/guihuawenjian/201703/t20170301_2170528.html, 2017.
    B. Cai, Q. Zhu, W. Shangguan, et al., "Key technology and application of autonomous sensing for train control system with adjustable dynamic interval", Journal of Beijing Jiaotong University, Vol.43, No.1, pp.31-41, 2019.
    W. Jiang, S. Chen, B. Cai, et al., "A multi-sensor positioning method-based train localization system for low density line", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol.67, No.11, pp.10425-10437, 2018.
    J. Liu, B. Cai and J. Wang, "Track-constrained GNSS/odometer-based train localization using a particle filter", 2016 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2016.
    C. Reimer, F.J. Müller and E.L.V. Hinüber, "INS/GNSS/odometer data fusion in railway applications", 2016 DGON Intertial Sensors and Systems (ISS), Karlsruhe, Germany, 2016.
    China Railway, "CTCS-3 system requirement standard", 2008.
    GB/T 21562:2008, Railway applications-the specification and demonstration of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS).
    EVS-EN 50126-1:2017, Railway applications-the specification and demonstration of reliability, availability, maintainability and safety.
    P.D. Groves, Principles of GNSS, Inertial, and Multisensor Integrated Navigation Systems, Artech house, London, UK, pp.162-163, 2013.
    GPS SPS PS:2008, Global positioning system standard positioning service performance standard.
    BDS-OS-PS-2.0:2018, BeiDou navigation natellite nystem open oervice performance standard.
    European Commission, "Galileo mission high level definition document (HLD) 3.0", 2002.
    European GNSS Agency, "EGNOS Open Service (OS) service definition document", 2017.
    European GNSS Agency, "EGNOS Safety of Life (SoL) service definition document", 2015.
    GPS WAAS PS:2008, Global positioning system wide area augmentation system (WAAS) performance standard.
    RTCA DO-229D:2006, Minimum operational performance standards for global positioning system/Wide area augmentation system airborne equipment.
    ICAO Annex 10 Vol 1:2006, Aeronautical telecommunications volume 1-radio navigation aids.
    D. Lu, "GNSS for train localization performance evaluation and verification", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Braunschweig-Institute of Technology, German, 2014.
    SaPPART COST Action, "SaPPART handbook-assessment of positioning performance in ITS applications", available at http://www.sappart.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/SaPPART_Handbook_final_06-2017.pdf, 2017.
    American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA), "Meeting the communication challenges for Positive Train Control", Chicago, 2009.
    U.S. Department of Defense, "2017 Federal Radionavigation Plan", Washington, 2017.
    European GNSS Agency, "Rail report on user needs and requirements v1.0", available at https://www.gsceuropa.eu/system/files/galileo_documents/Rail-Report-onUser-Needs-and-Requirements-v1.0.pdf, 2018.
    China Railway, "Research on GNSS performance test and evaluation technique for railway applications", 2016.
    H. Mocek, A. Filip and L. Bazant, "Galileo safety-oflife service utilization for railway non-safety and safety critical applications", Journal of Mechanical Systems for Transportation and Logistics, Vol.3, No.1, pp.119-130, 2010.
    G. Barbu, J. Wiss, P. Frosig, et al., "GNSS rail user forum:Requirements of rail applications", 2000.
    D. Lu and E. Schnieder, "Performance evaluation of GNSS for train localization", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol.16, No.2, pp.1054-1059, 2015.
    A. Filip, J. Beugin, J. Marais, et al., "Interpretation of the Galileo safety-of-life service by means of railway RAMS terminology", Transactions on Transport Sciences, Vol.1, No.2, pp.61-68, 2008.
    J. Goya, G.D. Miguel, S Arrizabalaga, et al., "Methodology and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for Railway On-Board Positioning Systems", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol.19, No.12, pp.4035-4042, 2018.
    EVS-EN 50129:2018, railway applications-communication, signaling and processing systems-safety related electronic systems for signaling.
    GB/T 6379.1:2004, Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results-part 1:general principles and definitions.
    L. HOGLE, "Investigation of the potential application of GPS for precision approaches", Navigation, Vol.35, No.3, pp.317-334, 1988.
    C. Dussault, R. Courtois, J.P. Ouellet, et al., "Influence of satellite geometry and differential correction on GPS location accuracy", Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol.29, No.1, pp.171-179, 2001.
    G. Laveti, G. S. Rao, K.J. Rani, et al., "GPS receiver SPS accuracy assessment using LS and LQ estimators for precise navigation", 2014 Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON), Pune, India, 2014.
    Y. Zhang, H. Bian and R. Wang, "Assessment of the accuracy of GNSS based on error ellipse", Computer and Digital Engineering, Vol.42, No.3, pp.364-368, 2014.
    F.G. Toro, U. Becker, D.E.D. Fuentes, et al., "Accuracy analysis for GNSS-based urban land vehicle localization system", IFAC-PapersOnline, Vol.49, No.3, pp.191-196, 2016.
    Z. Hu, "BeiDou navigation satellite system performance assessment theory and experimental verification", Ph.D. Thesis, Wuhan University, China, 2013.
    M. Adjrad and P.D. Groves, "Intelligent urban positioning:integration of shadow matching with 3D-mapping-aided GNSS ranging", The Journal of Navigation, Vol.71, No.1, pp.1-20, 2018.
    L. Hsu, Y. Gu and S. Kamijo, "3D building model-based pedestrian positioning method using GPS/GLONASS/QZSS and its reliability calculation", GPS Solutions, Vol.20, No.3, pp.413-428, 2016.
    R. G. Brown, "A baseline GPS RAIM scheme and a note on the equivalence of three RAIM methods", Navigation, Vol.39, No.3, pp.301-316, 1992.
    M. Brenner, "Implementation of a RAIM monitor in a GPS receiver and an integrated GPS/IRS", ION GPS-90, pp.397-406, 1990.
    M. Joerger, S. Stevanovic, S. Langel, et al., "Integrity riskminimisation in RAIM part 1:Optimal detector design", The Journal of Navigation, Vol.69, No.3, pp.449-467, 2016.
    S. Wang, "The study of GNSS receiver autonomous integrity monitoring based on M-estimation", Ph.D. Thesis, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), China, 2017.
    E. Wang, P. Qu, T. Pang, et al., "Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring based on particle swarm optimization particle filter", Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Vol.42, No.12, pp.2572-2578, 2016.
    C. Jeon and G. Lachapelle, "A new TLS-based sequential algorithm to identify two failed satellites", International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, Vol.3, No.2, pp.166-172, 2005.
    G. Castaldo, A. Angrisano, S. Gaglione, et al., "PRANSAC:An integrity monitoring approach for GNSS signal degraded scenario", International Journal of Navigation and Observation, 2014.
    J. Blanch, T. Walter, P. Enge, et al., "Advanced RAIM user algorithm description:Integrity support message processing, fault detection, exclusion, and protection level calculation", Proceedings of the 25th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS 2012), 2012.
    M. Joerger and B. Pervan, "Fault detection and exclusion using solution separation and chi-squared ARAIM", IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and electronic systems, Vol.52, No.2, pp.726-742, 2016.
    S. Hewitson, and J. Wang, "Extended receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (eRAIM) for gnss/ins integration", Journal of Surveying Engineering, Vol.136, No.1, pp.13-22, 2010.
    U.I. Bhatti, W.Y. Ochieng and S. Feng, "Integrity of an integrated GPS/INS system in the presence of slowly growing errors. Part II:analysis", GPS Solutions, Vol.11, No.3, pp.183-192, 2007.
    B. Cai, "Train integrated positioning methods for lowcost train control system", Ph.D. Thesis, Beijing Jiaotong University, 2010.
    X. Yan, "Research on fusion method of tightly integrated GNSS/INS for autonomous train locating", M.S. Thesis, Beijing Jiaotong University, 2011.
    J. Liu, "Research on robust estimation theory based train integrated positioning method", Ph.D. Thesis, Beijing Jiaotong University, 2011.
    J. Liu, T. Tang, B. Cai, et al., "Integrity assurance of GNSSbased train integrated positioning system", Science China Technological Sciences, Vol.54, No.7, pp.1779-1792, 2011.
    R.S. Young, G.A. McGraw and B.T. Driscoll, "Investigation and comparison of horizontal protection level and horizontal uncertainty level in FDE algorithms", ION GPS-96, pp.1607-1614, 1996.
    Y. Lee, "New techniques relating fault detection and exclusion performance to GPS primary means integrity requirements", ION GPS-95, pp.1929-1939, 1995.
    J. Liu, B. Cai, Y. Wen, et al., "Integrity monitoring and risk evaluation for BDS-based train positioning using track map database", 2014 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), 2014.
    A. Grosch, O.G. Crespillo, I, Martini, et al., "Snapshot residual and Kalman filter based fault detection and exclusion schemes for robust railway navigation", 2017 European Navigation Conference (ENC), 2017.
    J. Beugin and J. Marais, "Simulation-based evaluation of dependability and safety properties of satellite technologies for railway localization", Transportation Research Part C:Emerging Technologies, Vol.22, pp.42-57, 2012.
    T.P. K. Nguyen, J. Beugin and J. Marais, "Method for evaluating an extended Fault Tree to analyse the dependability of complex systems:Application to a satellitebased railway system", Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol.133, pp.300-313, 2015.
    T.P. K. Nguyen, J. Beugin, M. Berbineau, et al., "Application of fuzzy theory for identifying the required availability of an autonomous localization unit in European train control system", Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, pp.1-17, 2019.
    H. Yu, "Research on safety risk evaluation method for satellite-base train positioning", M.S. Thesis, Beijing Jiaotong University, 2017.
    B. Cai, J. Wang, J. Liu, et al., Positioning and Velocity Determination Technique in Train Control System, China Railway Publishing House, Beijing, China, 2018.
    J. Wang, D. Lu, Y. Tang, et al., "Virtual Balise application for GNSS train safe location and risk analysis", Journal of The China Railway Society, Vol.38, No.6, pp.53-58, 2016.
    C. Legrand, J. Beugin, J. Marais, et al., "From extended integrity monitoring to the safety evaluation of satellite-based localisation system", Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol.155, pp.105-114, 2016.
    J. Beugin, C. Legrand, J. Marias, et al., "Safety Appraisal of GNSS-Based Localization Systems Used in Train Spacing Control", IEEE Access, Vol.6, pp.9898-9916, 2018.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (26) PDF downloads(855) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return