LI Jian, LI Na, ZHANG Yu, et al., “A Survey on Quantum Cryptography,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 223-228, 2018, doi: 10.1049/cje.2018.01.017
Citation: LI Jian, LI Na, ZHANG Yu, et al., “A Survey on Quantum Cryptography,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 223-228, 2018, doi: 10.1049/cje.2018.01.017

A Survey on Quantum Cryptography

doi: 10.1049/cje.2018.01.017
Funds:  This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.U1636106, No.61472048, No.61572053).
More Information
  • Corresponding author: LI Na (corresponding author) was born in Jilin Province, China, in 1982. She received the M.E. degree in School of Computer Science and Technology from Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, China, in 2011. She is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. Her main research interests include information security, quantum cryptography, and quantum secure communication. (
  • Received Date: 2017-07-10
  • Rev Recd Date: 2017-10-10
  • Publish Date: 2018-03-10
  • Quantum cryptography (QC) as an important technology to protect the security of the future network communication, has gained extensive attention from both academia and industry in recent years. This paper provides a concise up-to-date review of QC, including Quantum key distribution (QKD), Quantum authentication, Quantum public-key cryptography (QPKC), and so on. Our aim is to pave a comprehensive and solid starting ground for interested readers. We firstly clarify the definition of QC. Secondly, we present the current understanding of QC from different levels, including the basic knowledge of quantum information processing, QC protocols and the attacks in QC. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in this hopeful field.
  • loading
  • C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard,"Quantum cryptography:Publickey distribution and coin tossing", Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, IEEE, New York, pp.175-179, 1984.
    C.H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.68, No.21, pp.3121-3124, 1992.
    D. Bruß, "Optimal eavesdropping in quantum cryptography with six states", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.81, No.14, pp.3018-3021, 1998.
    V. Scarani, A. Acín, G. Ribordy, et al., "Quantum cryptography protocols robust against photon number splitting attacks for weak laser pulse implementations", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.92, No.5, Article ID 057901, 4 pages, 2004.
    A.K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.67, No.6, pp.661-663, 1991.
    C.H. Bennett, G. Brassard and N.D. Mermin, "Quantum cryptography without Bell's theorem", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.68, No.5, pp.557-559, 1992.
    K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.89, No.3, Article ID 037902, 3 pages, 2002.
    T. Sasaki, Y. Yamamoto and M. Koashi,"Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance", Nature, Vol.509, No.7501, pp.475-478, 2014.
    D. Stucki, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, et al., "Fast and simple one-way quantum key distribution", Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.87, No.19, Article ID 194108, 3 pages, 2005.
    K. Boström and T. Felbinger, "Deterministic secure direct communication using entanglement", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.89, No.18, Article ID 187902, 4 pages, 2002.
    M. Lucamarini and S. Mancini, "Secure deterministic communication without entanglement", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.94, No.14, Article ID 140501, 4 pages, 2005.
    B.J. Xu, W.L. Liu, J.Q. Mao, et al., "Research on development status and existing problemsof quantum communication technology", Communications Technology, Vol.47, No.5, pp.463-468, 2014.
    N.J. Cerf, M. Lévy and G.V. Assche,"Quantum distribution of Gaussian keys using squeezed states", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.63, No.5, Article ID 052311, 5 pages, 2001.
    F. Grosshans and P. Grangier, "Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.88, No.5, Article ID 057902, 4 pages, 2002.
    C. Weedbrook, A.M. Lance, W.P. Bowen, et al., "Quantum cryptography without switching", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.93, No.17, Article ID 170504, 4 pages, 2004.
    S. Pirandola, S. Mancini, S. Lloyd, et al., "Continuous-variable quantum cryptography using two-way quantum communication", Nature Phys., Vol.4, No.9, pp.726-730, 2008.
    P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques and A. Leverrier, "Long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution with a Gaussian modulation", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.84, No.6, Article ID 062317, 7 pages, 2011.
    A. Acín, S. Massar and S. Pironio, "Efficient quantum key distribution secure against no-signalling eavesdroppers", New J. Phys., Vol.8, No.8, Article ID 126, 11 pages, 2006.
    C. Branciard, E.G. Cavalcanti, S.P. Walborn, et al., "One-sided device-independent quantum key distribution:Security, feasibility, and the connection with steering", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.85, No.1, Article ID 010301, 5 pages, 2012.
    M. Pawlowski and N. Brunner, "Semi-device-independent security of one-way quantum key distribution", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.84, No.1, Article ID 010302, 4 pages, 2011.
    Y. Zhao, C.H.F. Fung, B. Qi, et al., "Quantum hacking:Experimental demonstration of time-shift attack against practical quantum-key-distribution systems", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.78, No.4, Article ID 042333, 5 pages, 2008.
    V. Makarov and D.R. Hjelme, "Faked states attack on quantum cryptosystems", J. Mod. Opt., Vol.52, No.5, pp.691-705, 2005.
    V. Makarov, "Controlling passively quenched single photon detectors by bright light", New J. Phys., Vol.11, No.6, Article ID 065003, 18 pages, 2009.
    H.W. Li, S. Wang, J.Z. Huang, et al., "Attacking a practical quantum-key-distribution system with wavelength-dependent beam-splitterand multiwavelength sources", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.84, No.6, Article ID 062308, 5 pages, 2011.
    H.K. Lo, M. Curty and B. Qi, "Measurement-deviceindependent quantum key distribution", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.108, No.13, Article ID 130503, 5 pages, 2012.
    Y. Liu, T.Y. Chen, L.J. Wang, et al., "Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.111, No.13, Article ID 130502, 5 pages, 2013.
    Z. Tang, Z. Liao, F. Xu, et al., "Experimental demonstration of polarization encoding measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.112, No.19, Article ID 190503, 5 pages, 2014.
    H. Inamori, N. Lütkenhaus and D. Mayers, "Unconditional security of practical quantum key distribution", Eur. Phys. J. D, Vol.41, No.3, pp.599-627, 2007.
    D. Gottesman, H.K. Lo, N. Lütkenhaus, et al., "Security of quantum key distribution with imperfect devices", Quantum Inf. Comput., Vol.4, No.5, pp.325-360, 2004.
    W.Y. Hwang, H.Y. Su and J. Bae, "Improved measurementdevice-independent quantum key distribution with uncharacterized qubits", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.95, No.6, Article ID 062313, 4 pages, 2017.
    X.L. Hu, Y.H. Zhou, Z.W. Yu, et al., "Practical measurementdevice-independent quantum key distribution without vacuum sources", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.95, No.3, Article ID 032331, 6 pages, 2017.
    C. Jiang, Z.W. Yu and X.B. Wang, "Measurement-deviceindependent quantum key distribution with source state errors and statistical fluctuation", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.95, No.3, Article ID 032325, 5pages, 2017.
    C.M. Zhang, J.R. Zhu and Q. Wang, "Practical decoy-state reference-frame-independent measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.95, No.3, Article ID 032309, 5 pages, 2017.
    N. Lo Piparo, M. Razavi and W.J. Munro, "Measurementdevice-independent quantum key distribution with nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.95, No.2, Article ID 022338, 12 pages, 2017.
    N. Li, Y. Zhang, S. Wen, et al., "Security analysis of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution in collective-rotation noisy environment", Int. J. Theor. Phys., Vol.1, No.12, pp.1-12, 2017.
    J. Li, N. Li, L.L. Li, et al., "One step quantum key distribution based on EPR entanglement", Sci. Rep., Vol.6, Article ID 28767, 9 pages, 2016.
    N. Li, J. Li, L.L. Li, et al., "Deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad", Int. J. Theor. Phys., Vol.55, No.8, pp.3579-3587, 2016.
    S.B. Zhang, Z.H. Xie, Y.F. Yin, et al., "Study on quantum trust model based on node trust evaluation", Chinese Journal of Electronics, Vol.26, No.3, pp.608-613, 2017.
    Y.J. Zhao, X.W. Chen, Z.G. Shi, et al., "Implementation of oneway quantum computing with a hybrid solid-state quantum system", Chinese Journal of Electronics, Vol.26, No.1, pp.27-34, 2017.
    H.L. Yin, T.Y. Chen and Z.W. Yu, "Measurement-deviceindependent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.117, No.19, Article ID 190501, 5 pages, 2016.
    Z. Li, Y.C. Zhang, F. Xu, et al., "Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution", Phys. Rev. A, Vol.89, No.5, Article ID 052301, 8 pages, 2014.
    S. Pirandola, C. Ottaviani, G. Spedalieri, et al., "High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography", Nature Photon, Vol.9, No.6, pp.397-402, 2015.
    N. Zhou, G. Zeng, W. Zeng, et al., "Cross-center quantum identification scheme based on teleportation and entanglement swapping", Opt. Commun., Vol.254, No.4-6, pp.380-388, 2005.
    C.H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, et al., "Experimental quantum cryptography", J. Cryptol., Vol.5, No.1, pp.3-28, 1992.
    P. Jouguet, S. Kunz-Jacques, A. Leverrier, et al., "Experimental demonstration of long-distance continuous-variable quantum key distribution", Nature Photon, Vol.7, No.5, pp.378-381, 2013.
    D. Huang, P. Huang, D. Lin, et al., "Long-distance continuousvariable quantum key distribution by controlling excess noise", Sci. Rep., Vol.6, Article ID 19201, 9 pages, 2016.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌,
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (901) PDF downloads(1676) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint