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Research Article
A Millimeter-Wave Sensor and Differential Filter-Paper-Based Measurement Method for Cancer Cell Detections
LE Yi, LIU Hao, SU Guodong, LIU Jun, WANG Xiang, SUN Lingling
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2024.00.047
Abstract(6) HTML (3) PDF(2)
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This paper introduces a novel, easily-designed millimeter-wave sensor and an innovative liquid sensing method, both suitable for biological sample detection and cancer cell discrimination. The sensor, composed of coplanar waveguides with load resonators, features a centrally symmetric stepped-impedance resonator that creates a detection region, capable of achieving multiple transmission poles and zeros. This resonator is responsive to the equivalent dielectric constant of the surrounding space, mirroring the electromagnetic properties of the tested sample via the resonant frequency and notch depth. The proposed sensing method uses filter paper to characterize a liquid’s electromagnetic properties by comparing the s-parameters of dry and wet filter paper loaded onto the sensor. This method, an alternative to traditional microfluidic channels, allows all planar microwave/millimeter-wave solid dielectric constant sensors to robustly detect liquid materials. Applied to biomedicine, the design enables the sensor to generate multiple transmission peaks in the 20-60GHz range, thereby facilitating discrimination of various cancer cell culture media and suspensions. Compared to traditional biochemical methods, this approach significantly reduces cancer detection costs and offers new avenues for label-free, real-time detection.
CMOS Temperature Sensors: From Module Design to System Design
TANG Zhong, YU Xiao-Peng, SHI Zheng, Tan Nianxiong Nick
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.425
Abstract(15) HTML (6) PDF(2)
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In a smart CMOS temperature sensor, the temperature information is converted to an electrical signal, such as voltage, current, or time delay, and then it is digitized by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Instead of categorizing sensors according to their sensing elements, this work introduces different CMOS temperature sensors based on their signal processing domains of the readout circuits. To design a suitable sensor for a specific application, two general design methodologies are also introduced with state-of-the-art examples. Depending on the applications, the corresponding types of the sensor and design methodology can be chosen to optimize the performance.
Congestion Control Method for Campus Opportunity Network based on Ant Colony Algorithm
LI Peng, CAO Yumei, JIA Huan, WANG Xiaoming, WU Xiaojun
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2024.00.019
Abstract(34) HTML (16) PDF(4)
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Due to the limited storage resources of portable devices, congestion control has become a hot direction in opportunity networks. To address the issue of heavy loads on certain nodes, which can impact routing efficiency and overall network performance, this paper proposes a load-balancing algorithm based on ant colony optimization(ACO) in a campus environment. The congestion status is represented by the ratio of message drop receptions within a certain period and the occupancy of the cache. Path selection is based on the concentration of pheromones and the pheromones on the path are updated when a data transmission is completed. In the event of congestion, the algorithm prevents a large amount of data from entering the node and unloads the data to other nodes, even if they are not the optimal relay nodes. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively improves data transmission success rates, reduces network loads, and decreases the number of packet losses, especially under low latency conditions.
A Multi-Granularity Task Scheduling Method for Heterogeneous Computing Resources
LI Han, XU Chenxi, ZHAO Zhuofeng, LIU Mengyuan
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.378
Abstract(34) HTML (17) PDF(4)
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In light of the rapid advancement of technologies related to the Internet of Things (IoT), IoT service platforms have become one of the main solutions for providing intelligent and efficient services in the industrial sector. Scheduling is an effective means to match resources and guarantee quality of service (QoS). However, existing service scheduling models and methods have not fully considered the special needs of new IoT platforms. Therefore, this article summarizes the special requirements of the new IoT platform, including the heterogeneity of IoT service platform resources, complexity and diversity of tasks, as well as considering the demand for low energy consumption and low latency. Constructed a multi-granularity task scheduling model for cloud-edge collaborative environments, which takes the special needs mentioned above into account. Combined with priority experience replay and importance sampling, a task scheduling algorithm PRIME-AC based on deep reinforcement learning is proposed. The experimental results show that PRIME-AC has better performance in both task execution delay and load balancing than other baselines.
A 8-26 GHz Passive Mixer with Excellent Port Matching Utilizing Marchand Balun and Capacitor Compensation
ZHANG Yi, ZHUANG Yuhang, ZHANG Hu, YANG Lei, WANG Jing, ZHANG Changchun, GUO Yufeng
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.178
Abstract(39) HTML (17) PDF(8)
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In this study, a broadband Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) double-balanced mixer designed for operation within the frequency range of 8-26 GHz is presented. The design is implemented using a 0.15μm GaAs process. Traditional Marchand baluns, when applied to wideband mixers, face challenges in simultaneously achieving broad bandwidth and good port matching characteristics. To address this issue, we employ a spiral Marchand balun with a compensation capacitor. This innovative approach not only maintains the mixer’s wide bandwidth but also enhances the matching between the LO and RF ports. Additionally, it significantly simplifies the complexity of designing the matching circuit. The optimization principle of the compensation capacitor is elaborated in detail within this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that, with an LO power of 14 dBm, the conversion loss remains below 8.5 dB, while the VSWR of the LO and IF ports is less than 2 and the VSWR of the RF port is below 2.4. In comparison with existing literature, our designed mixer exhibits a broader bandwidth and lower loss.
A High-Resolution Calibration method for Time-to-Digital Converter of Lidar
LIU Ruqing, LI Feng, ZHU Jingguo, JIANG Yan, JIANG Chenghao, HU Tao
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.237
Abstract(16) HTML (7) PDF(1)
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High-resolution Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) finds major applications in light detection and ranging (Lidar) systems as one of the high precision time measuring techniques. In this work, a high resolution TDC is designed and implemented on a Xilinx FPGA board. For precision time measurements, the proposed TDC uses an internal tapped delay chain written in Verilog. The TDC circuit measurement errors are examined and calibrated following several principles of error reduction techniques to meet the specific demand for the high-precision Lidar range. Experiments have shown that the suggested calibration TDC has higher performance, achieving sub 35ps resolution. The design is fully customizable and implemented as a set of separate IP cores. This allows for easy implementation and meets the requirements of the present-day pulse Lidar systems.
Energy-Efficient D2D-Aided Dual UAV Data Collection
HUANG Qiulei, WANG Wei, SONG Zhaohui, ZHAO Nan
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.271
Abstract(43) HTML (22) PDF(7)
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Aided by device-to-device (D2D) connections, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can significantly enhance the coverage of wireless communications. In this paper, we consider a data collection system with the assistance of D2D, where two fixed-wing UAVs as aerial base stations cooperatively serve the ground devices. To accommodate more devices, we propose two effective algorithms to establish the multi-hop D2D connections. Then, the user scheduling, UAV trajectory and transmit power are jointly optimized to maximize the energy efficiency, which is a non-convex problem. Accordingly, we decompose it into three subproblems. The scheduling optimization is first converted into a linear programming. Then, the trajectory design and the transmit power optimization are reformulated as two convex problems by the Dinkelbach method. Finally, an iterative algorithm is proposed to effectively solve the original problem. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Antenna Selection Method for Distributed Dual-function Radar Communication in MIMO System
ZHAO Haitao, DING Zhongzheng, WANG Qin, XIA Wenchao, Bo XU, ZHU Hongbo
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.270
Abstract(88) HTML (43) PDF(13)
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Distributed dual-function radar systems are an emerging trend in next-generation wireless systems, offering the possibility of improved parameter estimation for target localization as well as improved communication performance. With sufficient resource allocation, the achievable minimum estimated mean square error (MSE) and maximum total communication rate of localization may exceed the intended performance metrics of the system, which may consume an excessive number of antennas as well as antenna costs. In order to avoid resource wastage, this paper proposes a distributed dual-function radar communication (DFRC) MIMO system capable of performing radar and communication tasks simultaneously. The distributed system achieves the desired MSE performance metrics and communication performance metrics by efficiently selecting a subset of antennas, and minimizing the number of transmitting antennas and receiving antennas used in the system as well as the cost. In this paper, the problem is modeled as a Knapsack Problem (KP) where the objective is to obtain the maximal MSE performance and the maximal total communication rate performance at the lowest cost, for which we design a heuristic antenna selection algorithm. The designed algorithm is effective in reducing the time complexity as well as reducing the cost of antenna and minimizing the number of antennas required.
Ultralow Ohmic Contact in Recess-Free Ultrathin Barrier AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures Across a Wide Temperature Range
WANG Yuhao, HUANG Sen, JIANG Qimeng, WANG Xinhua, FAN Jie, YIN Haibo, WEI Ke, ZHENG Yingkui, LIU Xinyu
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.309
Abstract(87) HTML (44) PDF(18)
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‘Ohmic-before-passivation’ process was implemented on ultrathin-barrier (UTB) AlGaN (<6 nm)/GaN heterostructure to further reduce the ohmic contact resistance (Rc). In this process, alloyed Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic metal was formed first, followed by AlN/SiNx passivation contributed to restore 2-D Electron Gas (2DEG) in the access region. Due to the sharp change in the concentration of 2DEG at the metal edge, a reduced transfer length (LT) consisted with lower Rc are achieved compared to that of ohmic contact on AlGaN (~20 nm)/GaN heterostructure with pre-ohmic recess process. Temperature-dependent current voltage measurements demonstrate that the carrier transport mechanism is dominated by thermionic field emission above 200 K and by field emission below 200 K. The ‘ohmic-before-passivation’ process enables the relative stability of ohmic contacts between 50~475 K and significantly improves the DC characteristics of GaN-MISHEMTs, offering a promising means for scaling down and enabling the utilization of low-voltage GaN-based power devices in extreme environmental conditions.
PriChain: Efficient Privacy-Preserving Fine-grained Redactable Blockchains in Decentralized Settings
GUO Hongchen, GAN Weilin, ZHAO Mingyang, ZHANG Chuan, WU Tong, ZHU Liehuang, XUE Jingfeng
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.305
Abstract(93) HTML (47) PDF(16)
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Recently, redactable blockchain has been proposed and leveraged in a wide range of real systems for its unique properties of decentralization, traceability, and transparency while ensuring controllable on-chain data redaction. However, the development of redactable blockchain is now obstructed by three limitations, which are data privacy breaches, high communication overhead, and low searching efficiency, respectively. In this paper, we propose PriChain, the first efficient privacy-preserving fine-grained redactable blockchain in decentralized settings. PriChain provides data owners with rights to control who can read and redact on-chain data while maintaining downward compatibility, ensuring the one who can redact will be able to read. Specifically, inspired by the concept of multi-authority attribute-based encryption, we utilize the isomorphism of the access control tree, realizing fine-grained redaction mechanism, downward compatibility, and collusion resistance. With the newly designed structure, PriChain can realize ${\cal{O}}(n) $ communication and storage overhead compared to prior ${\cal{O}}(n^2) $ schemes. Furthermore, we integrate multiple access trees into a tree-based dictionary, optimizing searching efficiency. Theoretical analysis proves that PriChain is secure against the chosen-plaintext attack and has competitive complexity. The experimental evaluations show that PriChain realizes 10× efficiency improvement of searching and 100× lower communication and storage overhead on average compared with existing schemes.
Service Migration Algorithm Based on Markov Decision Process with Multiple Service Types and Multiple System Factors
MA Anhua, PAN Su, ZHOU Weiwei
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.128
Abstract(39) HTML (19)
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This paper proposes a Markov decision process based service migration algorithm to satisfy Quality of Service(QoS) requirements when the terminals leave the original server. Services were divided into real-time services and non-real-time services, each type of them has different requirements on transmission bandwidth and latency, which were considered in the revenue function. Different values were assigned to the weight coefficients of QoS parameters for different service types in the revenue and cost functions so as to distinguish the differences between the two service types. The overall revenue was used for migration decisions, rather than fixed threshold or instant revenue. The Markov decision process was used to maximize the overall revenue of the system. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm obtained more revenue compared with the existing works.
Wideband Millimeter Wave Antenna with Cavity Backed Slotted Patch and Magneto-Electric Dipole
CHENG Yang, DONG Yuandan
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.064
Abstract(97) HTML (42) PDF(9)
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This paper proposes a wideband cavity-backed slotted patch antenna, loaded with a magneto-electric (ME) dipole and fed by a microstrip line, for millimeter wave (mm-Wave) applications. The coupled-feed cavity-backed slotted patch antenna is loaded with the ME-dipole. The slotted patch antenna serves both as a radiator and a ground for the ME-dipole. The combination of the ME-dipole antenna and the slotted patch antenna realizes a -10dB impedance bandwidth covering over 22.86-44.35GHz (63.9%). The pattern of the antenna element remains stable throughout this bandwidth. The proposed broadband antenna unit not only realizes single linearly polarized (LP) radiation but also can be designed for dual-LP radiation. The dual-polarized radiation can be achieved by changing the slot of the patch antenna to a crossed slot and altering the ME-dipole antenna to a dual-polarization form. A 2×2 dual-polarized array has been designed, fabricated, and tested. A novel dual-polarized feeding network is proposed. To achieve higher isolation, broadband in-phase feed and differential feed are adopted, respectively. A low-loss single to the differential structure is proposed for differential feeding. The simulated isolation of the array is higher than 40 dB. Measured results show that the dual-polarized 2×2 array has an overlapping bandwidth of 52.3% (|S11|<−10 dB and |S21|<−30 dB) with a peak gain of 14 dBi. The proposed antenna, featuring a wide overall bandwidth, low cost, and good radiation performance, is well suited for mm-Wave applications.
TE101 Substrate Integrated Waveguide Filter With Wide Stopband Up to TE10(2n-1) and Coplanar Ports
CHU Peng, FENG Jianguo, GUO Lei, ZHU Fang, KONG Wei-Bin, LIU Leilei, LUO Guo Qing, WU Ke
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.225
Abstract(77) HTML (39) PDF(4)
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This article presents a new method for substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) filters to achieve wide stopbands. Using the proposed staggered inter-coupling structures, double-layer SIW filters working at the fundamental mode TE101 (f0) can have wide stopbands up to TE10(2n-1), where n is the order of the filter. They can break the upper limit of the stopband extension and have coplanar ports suitable for planar circuits and systems in comparison to their multilayer counterparts, and they can further extend the stopbands and have shielding structures suitable for high-performance and high-frequency applications in comparison to their hybrid counterparts. Three examples are provided. The measured results show that they respectively achieve wide stopbands up to 3.97 f0, 5.22 f0, and 6.53 f0. The proposed technique should be effective for developing wide stopband SIW filters for microwave circuits and systems.
A Microstrip Leaky-Wave Antenna with Scanning Beams Horizontal to the Antenna Plane
Henghui WANG, Peiyao CHEN, Sheng SUN
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.033
Abstract(129) HTML (66) PDF(23)
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A leaky-wave antenna with horizontal scanning beams and broadside radiation is presented on the periodically modulated microstrip. The horizontal radiation is realized by periodically etching a set of resonant open-ended slots on the ground plane. Dispersion diagrams and Bloch impedance are first analyzed to investigate the propagation and radiation characteristics of the periodic structure. Subsequently, shunt matching stubs are installed aiming to obtain seamless beam scanning property through the broadside. Finally, a prototype is implemented as verification of the presented antenna. Results of the simulations and measurements agree well with each other, indicating the elimination of the open-stop band effect and the horizontal radiation beams. The fabricated antenna exhibits a beam range from −62° to +34°, and provides a maximum measured gain about 14.6 dBi at 10 GHz.
Model Checking Computation Tree Logic over Multi-valued Decision Processes and Its Reduction Techniques
LIU Wuniu, WANG Junmei, HE Qing, LI Yongming
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.333
Abstract(399) HTML (198) PDF(16)
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Model checking computation tree logic (CTL) based on multi-valued possibility measures has been studied by Li et al. in 2019. However, the previous work did not consider the nondeterministic choices inherent in systems represented by multi-valued Kripke structures (MvKSs). This nondeterminism is crucial for accurate system modeling, decision making, and control capabilities. To address this limitation, we draw inspiration from the generalization of Markov chains (MCs) to Markov decision processes (MDPs) in probabilistic systems. By integrating nondeterminism into MvKS, we introduce multi-valued decision processes (MvDPs) as a framework for modeling MvKSs with nondeterministic choices. Additionally, we investigate the challenges of model checking over MvDPs. In our approach, verifying properties are expressed by using multi-valued computation tree logic (MvCTL) based on schedulers. Our primary objective is to leverage fixpoint techniques to determine the maximum and minimum possibilities of the system satisfying temporal properties. This allows us to identify the optimal or worst-case schedulers for decision making or control purposes. Furthermore, we aim to develop reduction techniques that enhance the efficiency of model checking, thereby reducing the associated time complexity.
Efficient nonnegative tensor decomposition using alternating direction proximal method of multipliers
WANG Deqing, HU Guoqiang
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.035
Abstract(303) HTML (151) PDF(43)
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Nonnegative CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (NCP) tensor decomposition is a powerful tool for multiway signal processing. The optimization algorithm alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) has become increasingly popular for solving tensor decomposition problems in the block coordinate descent framework. However, the ADMM-based NCP suffers from rank deficiency and slow convergence for some large-scale and highly sparse tensor data. The proximal algorithm is preferred to enhance optimization algorithms and improve convergence properties. In this study, we propose a novel NCP algorithm using the alternating direction proximal method of multipliers (ADPMM) that consists of the proximal algorithm. The proposed NCP algorithm can guarantee convergence and overcome the rank deficiency. Moreover, we implement the proposed NCP using an inexact scheme that alternatively optimizes the subproblems. Each subproblem is optimized by a finite number of inner iterations yielding fast computation speed. Our NCP algorithm is a hybrid of alternating optimization and ADPMM and is named A2DPMM. The experimental results on synthetic and real-world tensors demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed algorithm.
Poisson Multi-Bernoulli Mixture Filter for Heavy-tailed Process and Measurement Noises
ZHU Jiangbo, XIE Wexin, LIU Zongxiang, WANG Xiaoli
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.325
Abstract(118) HTML (58) PDF(15)
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A novel Poisson multi-Bernoulli mixture (PMBM) filter is proposed to track multiple targets in the presence of heavy-tailed process and measurement noises. Unlike the standard PMBM filter that requires the Gaussian process and measurement noises, the proposed filter uses the Student’s t distribution to model the heavy-tailed noise feature. It propagates Student’s t-based PMBM posterior in the closed-form recursion. The introduction of the moment matching method enables the proposed filter to deal with the process and measurement noises with different heavy-tailed degrees to some extent. Simulation results demonstrate that the overall performance of the proposed filter is better than the existing heavy-tailed noise filters in various scenarios.
High Power GaN Doubler with High Duty Cycle Pulse Based on Local Non-Reflection Design
DONG Yazhou, ZHOU Tianchi, LIANG Shixiong, GU Guodong, ZHOU Hongji, YU Jianghua, GUO Hailong, ZHANG Yaxin
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.179
Abstract(108) HTML (54) PDF(15)
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The study focuses on the development of gallium nitride (GaN) Schottky barrier diode (SBD) frequency doublers for terahertz technology. The low conversion efficiency of these doublers limits their practical applications. To address this challenge, the paper proposes a multi-objective local no-reflection design method based on a three-dimensional electromagnetic structure. The method aims to improve the coupling efficiency of input power and reduce the reflection of power output. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method significantly improves the performance of GaN SBD frequency doublers, achieving an efficiency of 16.9% and a peak output power of 160 mW at 175 GHz. These results suggest that the method can contribute to the further development of GaN SBD frequency doublers for terahertz technology.
An Efficient and Fast Area Optimization Approach for Mixed Polarity Reed-Muller Logic Circuits
Yuhao ZHOU, Zhenxue HE, Jianhui JIANG, Xiaojun ZHAO, Fan ZHANG, Limin XIAO, Xiang WANG
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.407
Abstract(200) HTML (99) PDF(30)
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At present, area has become one of the main bottlenecks restricting the development of integrated circuits. The area optimization approaches of existing XNOR/OR-based mixed polarity Reed-Muller (MPRM) circuits have poor optimization effect and efficiency. Since the area optimization of MPRM logic circuits is a combinatorial optimization problem, we propose a whole annealing adaptive bacterial foraging algorithm (WAA-BFA), which includes individual evolution based on Markov chain and Metropolis acceptance criteria, and individual mutation based on adaptive probability. In addition, we propose a fast polarity conversion algorithm (FPCA) due to the low conversion efficiency of existing polarity conversion approaches. Finally, we propose an MPRM circuits area optimization approach (MAOA), which uses the FPCA and WAA-BFA to search for the best polarity corresponding to the minimum circuits area. The experimental results show that MAOA is effective and can be used as a promising EDA tool.
An Algorithm of Deformation Image Correction Based on Spatial Mapping
DENG Xiangyu, ZHANG Aijia, YE Jinhong
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.443
Abstract(159) HTML (79) PDF(23)
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The original image undergoes geometric deformation in terms of position, shape, size, and orientation due to the shooting angle or capturing process during image acquisition. This brings about inconveniences and significant challenges in various image processing fields such as image fusion, denoising, recognition, and segmentation. To enhance the processing ability and recognition accuracy of deformation images, an adaptive image deformity correction algorithm is proposed for quadrilaterals and triangles. The deformation image undergoes preprocessing, and the contour of the image edge is extracted. Discrete points on the image edge are identified to accurately locate the edges. The deformation of the quadrilateral or triangle is transformed into a standard rectangular or equilateral triangular image using the proposed three-dimensional homography transformation algorithm. This effectively completes the conversion from an irregular image to a regular image in an adaptive manner. Numerous experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm surpasses traditional methods like Hough transform and Radon transform. It improves the effectiveness of correcting deformation in images, effectively addresses the issue of geometric deformation, and provides a new technical method for processing deformation images.
Hybrid ITÖ Algorithm for Large-scale Colored Traveling Salesman Problem
DONG Xueshi
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.040
Abstract(293) HTML (145) PDF(22)
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In the fields of intelligent transportation and multi-task cooperation, many practical problems can be modeled by colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP). However, when solving large-scale CTSP with a scale of more than 1000 dimensions, their convergence speed and the quality of their solutions are limited. Therefore, this paper proposes a new hybrid ITÖ (HITÖ) algorithm, which integrates two new strategies, crossover operator and mutation strategy, into the standard ITÖ. In the iteration process of HITÖ, the feasible solution of CTSP is represented by the double chromosome coding, and the random drift and wave operators are used to explore and develop new unknown regions. In this process, the drift operator is executed by the improved crossover operator, and the wave operator is performed by the optimized mutation strategy. Experiments show that HITÖ is superior to the known comparison algorithms in term of the quality solution.
Enhanced Privacy-Preserving WiFi Fingerprint Localization from CL Encryption
WANG Zhiwei, ZHU Qiuchi, ZHANG Zhenqi
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.257
Abstract(282) HTML (139) PDF(14)
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The WiFi fingerprint-based localization method is considered one of the most popular techniques for indoor localization. In INFOCOM'14, Li et al. proposed a WiFi fingerprint localization system based on Paillier encryption, which is claimed to protect both client $C$’s location privacy and service provider $S$’s database privacy. However, Yang et al. presented a practical data privacy attack in INFOCOM'18, which allows a polynomial time attacker to obtain $S$’s database. In this paper, we propose a novel WiFi fingerprint localization system based on CL encryption, which has a trustless setup and is efficient due to the excellent properties of CL encryption. To prevent Yang et al.’s attack, the system requires that $S$ selects only the locations from its database that can receive the nonzero signals from all the available APs in $C$’s nonzero fingerprint in order to determine $C$’s location. Security analysis shows that our scheme is secure under Li et al.’s threat model. Furthermore, to enhance the security level of PriWFLCL, we propose a secure and efficient zero-knowledge proof protocol for the discrete logarithm relations in $C$’s encrypted localization queries.
XPull: A Relay-based Blockchain Intercommunication Framework Achieving Cross-chain State Pulling
LIANG Xinyu, CHEN Jing, DU Ruiying
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.004
Abstract(215) HTML (108) PDF(34)
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Cross-chain technology, which enables different blockchains to intercommunicate with one another, is challenging. Many existing cross-chain platforms, such as Polkadot and Cosmos, generally adopt a relay-based scheme: a relaychain (relay blockchain) receives and records the state information from every parachain (parallel blockchain), and publish the information on the platform, by which parachains are able to efficiently acquire the state information from one another. However, in the condition when parachain is consortium blockchain, the cross-chain platform cannot work properly. On the one hand, whether state information is submitted to relaychain is completely decided by the internal decision of parachain. The timeliness of state information cannot be guaranteed. On the other hand, the transfer of state information will be interrupted due to the failure of parachain or relaychain-parachain connection. In this paper, we propose a relay-based blockchain intercommunication framework, called XPull. Specifically, to ensure the timeliness of state information, we propose a cross-chain state pulling scheme based on cosigned state pulling agreement. To solve the interruption of state transfer, we propose a random scheduling scheme to resume the transfer, or confirm the failure of parachain. The security analysis and experimental results demonstrate that XPull is secure and efficient.
Review
Analytical Channel Modeling: From MIMO to Extra Large-Scale MIMO
TIAN Jiachen, HAN Yu, JIN Shi, ZHANG Jun, WANG Jue
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.418
Abstract(29) HTML (16) PDF(7)
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Multiple antenna technologies, from traditional multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) to massive MIMO and the emerging extra large-scale MIMO, have consistently played a pivotal role in enhancing transmission rates by increasing the number of antennas. To guide the design of transmission strategies, channel models, especially analytical ones, are always significant tools, which can also reveal the performance improvements brought about by multiple antenna technologies. Analytical channel models have enjoyed significant success in traditional MIMO and massive MIMO systems. Nevertheless, due to the extended size of the array in an extra large-scale MIMO system, the distance between the receiver and the transmitter decreases and new channel properties, which did not manifest in massive MIMO systems, begin to kick in. To model the channel tailored for extra large-scale MIMO systems analytically, it is crucial to conduct a comprehensive review of traditional analytical MIMO channel models, which serves as a foundational step in understanding the fundamental characteristics of multi-antenna channels. In this paper, we first provide a survey on the state-of-the-art analytical MIMO channel models from the perspective of spatial correlation and signal propagation. Subsequently, we summarize the new properties of extra large-scale MIMO systems, i.e., near-field properties and spatial non-stationarities, and their influences on analytical channel modeling. Our objective is to elucidate how these novel properties affect the analytical MIMO channel models, and ultimately facilitate the development of precise analytical channel models well-suited to the extra large-scale MIMO systems.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
FMR-GNet: Forward Mix-Hop Spatial-Temporal Residual Graph Network for 3D Pose Estimation
YANG Honghong, LIU Hongxi, ZHANG Yumei, WU Xiaojun
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.365
Abstract(220) HTML (107) PDF(33)
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Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) that leverage spatial-temporal information from skeletal data have emerged as a popular approach for 3D human pose estimation. However, comprehensively modeling of consist spatial-temporal dependencies among the body joints remains a challenging task. Current approaches are limited by performing graph convolutions solely on immediate neighbors, deploying separate spatial or temporal modules, and utilizing single-pass feedforward architectures. To solve these limitations, we propose FMR-GNet, a Forward Multi-Scale Residual Graph Convolutional Network for 3D pose estimation from monocular video. Firstly, we introduce a mix-hop spatial-temporal attention graph convolution layer that effectively aggregates neighboring features with learnable weights over large receptive fields. The attention mechanism enables dynamically computing edge weights at each layer. Second, we devise a cross-domain spatial-temporal residual (CSTR) module to fuse multi-scale spatial-temporal convolutional features through residual connections, explicitly modeling interdependencies across spatial and temporal domains. Third, we integrate a forward dense connection block to propagate spatial-temporal representations across network layers, enabling high-level semantic skeleton information to enrich lower-level features. Comprehensive experiments conducted on two challenging 3D human pose estimation benchmarks, Human3.6M and MPI-INF-3DHP, demonstrate that the proposed FMR-GNet achieves superior performance, surpassing most state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods.
TCM2023+Characteristic Mode Analysis for Pattern Diversity and Beamforming: A Survey
ZHANG Qianyun, WU Biyi
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.255
Abstract(45) HTML (23) PDF(14)
Abstract:
With the rapid development of space-air-ground integrated communications, diverse requirements have been imposed on antenna radiation patterns. In addition, increasingly compact platforms brings significant challenges to the deployment of antenna arrays normally used for beamforming. This article comprehensively surveys characteristic mode analysis (CMA)-based pattern diversity realizations in past years. Specifically, exciting multiple characteristic modes independently achieves pattern reconfigurability and element-reduced multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems. We furthermore overview a series of works on modes superposition. Various methods have been explored for modal weights decision, and therefore specific patterns are synthesized. The weighted modal combination also fulfills single-element beamforming. A recent study on an antenna design for electrically small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is summarized, and the desired reconfigurable radiation patterns of the conformal radiator are realized based on CMA. Moreover, a formation-based beamforming technique, which takes advantages of the electromagnetic coupling among conformal radiators and the agility of UAVs, is introduced.
Collaborative Service Provisioning for UAV-Assisted Mobile Edge Computing
QU Yuben, WEI Zhenhua, QIN Zhen, WU Tao, MA Jinghao, DAI Haipeng, DONG Chao
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.323
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Abstract:
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-assisted mobile edge computing (MEC) has been generally recognized as a potential technology to efficiently and flexibly cope with latency-sensitive and computation-intensive tasks in fifth generation (5G) and beyond. In this work, we study the problem of Collaborative Service Provisioning for UAV-assisted MEC (CSP). Specifically, our aim is to minimize the total energy consumption of all terrestrial user equipments (UEs) with task latency and other resource constraints, by jointly optimizing service placement, UAV movement trajectory, task offloading, and computation resource allocation. The CSP problem is naturally a non-convex mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem, owing to the non-convexity of CSP and complex coupling of mixed integral variables. To address CSP, we propose an alternating optimization-based suboptimal solution with convergence guarantee as follows. We iteratively solve the integral joint service placement and task offloading subproblem, and UAV movement trajectory subproblem, by Branch and Bound (BnB) and successive convex approximation (SCA), respectively, while the closed form of the optimal computation resource allocation can be efficiently obtained. Extensive simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm compared to three baselines.
Dispersion Compensation and Demultiplexing Using a Cascaded CFBG Structure in a 150 km Long DWDM Optical Network
Baseerat Gul, Faroze Ahmad
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.416
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Abstract:
This paper proposes the design of a 150 km dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical network with a capacity of 8×10 Gbps. To mitigate system dispersion, a cost-effective hybrid dispersion compensator is implemented using chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBG) and a pair of 5 km long dispersion compensation fibers (DCF). The novelty of the work is the use of CFBG for multiple functions, including operating as a demultiplexer and providing dispersion compensation. The proposed network design uses 140 km long conventional single-mode fiber (CSMF) and a 10 km long DCF in a symmetrical compensation mode. Without the CFBG structure, a 33 km long DCF would be needed to compensate for total channel dispersion, costing around 3$/m. However, by adding the CFBG structure, the design only requires a 10 km long DCF, reducing the DCF length by more than 65% and lowering the system cost. The CFBG integration also eliminates the need for an additional demultiplexer in the receiver section, reducing system complexity and cost. The system performance is evaluated analytically in terms of Q-factor, bit-error rate (BER), eye-diagram, and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). The average Q-factor and BER values achieved per channel are 16.5 and 8.38×10−56, respectively, and for all receiver channels, the eye-openings are good enough with commendable OSNR values. The proposed design achieves good performance characteristics despite using shorter-length DCF when compared with previously reported works.
RFID-Based WSN Communication System with ESPAR Array Antenna for SIR Improvement
Md. Moklesur RAHMAN, Heung-Gyoon RYU
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.213
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Abstract:
To improve the received signal strength (RSS) and signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR), electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) array antennas are designed for the ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) communication systems that can provide very low power consumption in sensor tag edge. Higher gain, appropriate radiation pattern, and most power-efficient array antennas are completely essential in these sensor network systems. As a result, it is suggested that ESPAR array antennas be used on the RFID reader side to reduce interference, multipath fading, and extend communication range. Additionally, a system architecture for UHF- RFID wireless sensor network (WSN) communication is put forth in order to prevent interference from antenna nulling technology, in which ESPAR array antennas could be capable of generating nulls. The array antennas within the system demonstrate high efficiency, appropriate radiation patterns, and gains (9.63 dBi, 10.2 dBi, and 12 dBi) from one array to other arrays. The nulling technique using the proposed array antennas also provides better SINR values (31.63 dB, 33.2 dB, and 36 dB). Finally, the nulling space matrix is studied in relation to the channel modeling. Therefore, the suggested approach might offer better communications in sensor networking systems.
Levy Flight Adopted Particle Swarm Optimization-based Resource Allocation Strategy in Fog Computing
Sharmila Patil(Karpe), Brahmananda S H
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.212
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Abstract:
The prevalence of the Internet of Things (IoT) is unsteady in the context of cloud computing, it is difficult to identify fog and cloud resource scheduling policies that will satisfy users’ QoS need. As a result, it increases the efficiency of resource usage and boosts user and resource supplier profit. This research intends to introduce a novel strategy for computing fog via emergency-oriented resource allotment, which aims and determines the effective process under different parameters. The modeling of a non-linear functionality that is subjected to an objective function and incorporates needs or factors like Service response rate, Execution efficiency, and Reboot rate allows for the resource allocation of cloud to fog computing in this work. Apart from this, the proposed system considers the resource allocation in emergency priority situations that must cope-up with the immediate resource allocation as well. Security in resource allocation is also taken into consideration with this strategy. Thus the multi-objective function considers 3 objectives such as Service response rate, Execution efficiency, and Reboot rate. All these strategies in resource allocation are fulfilled by Levy Flight adopted Particle Swarm Optimization (LF-PSO). Finally, the evaluation is performed to determine whether the developed strategy is superior to numerous traditional schemes. However, the cost function attained by the adopted technique is 120, which is 19.17%, 5%, and 2.5% greater than the conventional schemes like GWSO, EHO, and PSO, when the number of iterations is 50.
Security Analysis for SCKHA Algorithm: Stream Cipher Algorithm Based on Key Hashing Technique
Souror Samia, El-Fishawy Nawal, Badawy Mohammed
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.383
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Abstract:

The strength of any cryptographic algorithm is mostly based on the difficulty of its encryption key.However, the larger size of the shared key the more computational operations and processing time for cryptographic algorithms. To avoid increasing the key size and keep its secrecy, we must hide it. The authors proposed a stream cipher algorithm that can hide the symmetric key[1] through hashing and splitting techniques. This paper aims to measure security analysis and performance assessment for this algorithm. This algorithm is compared with three of the commonly used stream cipher algorithms: RC4, Rabbit, and Salsa20 in terms of execution time and throughput. This comparison has been conducted with different data types as audio, image, text, docs, and pdf. Experiments proved the superiority of SCKHA algorithm over both Salsa20 and Rabbit algorithms. Also, results proved the difficulty to recover the secret key for SCKHA algorithm. Although RC4 has a lower encryption time than SCKHA, it is not recommended for use because of its vulnerabilities. Security factors that affect the performance as avalanche effect, correlation analysis, histogram analysis, and Shannon information entropy are highlighted. Also, the ciphertext format of the algorithm gives it the ability to search over encrypted data.

Multi-scale Global Retrieval and Temporal-Spatial Consistency Matching based long-term Tracking Network
SANG Haifeng, LI Gongming, ZHAO Ziyu
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.195
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Abstract:

Compared with the traditional short-term object tracking task based on temporal-spatial consistency, the long-term object tracking task faces the challenges of object disappearance, dramatic changes in object scale, and object appearance. To address these challenges and problems, in this paper we propose a Multi-scale Global Retrieval and Temporal-Spatial Consistency Matching based long-term Tracking Network (MTTNet). MTTNet regards the long-term tracking task as a single sample object detection task and takes full advantage of the temporal-spatial consistency assumption between adjacent video frames to improve the tracking accuracy. MTTNet utilizes the information of single sample as guidance to perform full-image multi-scale retrieval on any instance and does not require online learning and trajectory refinement. Any type of error generated during the detection process will not affect its performance on subsequent video frames. This can overcome the accumulation of errors in the tracking process of traditional object tracking networks. We introduce Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling to address the challenge of dramatic changes in the scale and the appearance of the object. On the experimental results, MTTNet can achieve better performance than composite processing methods on two large datasets.

Robust Beamforming Design for IRS-Aided Cognitive Radio Networks with Bounded CSI Errors
ZHANG Lei, WANG Yu, SHANG Yulong, TIAN Jianjie, JIA Ziyan
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.254
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Abstract:

In this paper, intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is introduced to enhance the performance of cognitive radio (CR) systems. The robust beamforming is designed based on combined bounded channel state information (CSI) error for primary user (PU) related channels. The transmit precoding at the secondary user (SU) transmitter and phase shifts at the IRS are jointly optimized to minimize the SU's total transmit power subject to the quality of service of SUs, the limited interference imposed on the PU and unit-modulus of the reflective beamforming. Simulation results verify the efficiency of the proposed algorithm and reveal that the number of phase shifts at IRS should be carefully chosen to obtain a tradeoff between the total minimum transmit power and the feasibility rate of the optimization problem.

Design and Implementation of a Novel Self-bias S-band Broadband GaN Power Amplifier
ZHANG Luchuan, ZHONG Shichang, CHEN Yue
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.118
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Abstract:

In this paper, a 3.6 mm gate width GaN HEMT with 0.35 μm gate length process and input and output matching circuits of Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute are used for broadband design respectively, and a novel high-power and high-efficiency self-bias S-band broadband continuous wave GaN power amplifier is realized. Under the working conditions of 2.2 GHz to 2.6 GHz and 32 V drain power supply, the continuous wave output power of the amplifier is more than 20 W, the power gain is more than 15 dB, and the max power added efficiency is more than 65%. The self-bias amplifier simplifies the circuit structure and realizes excellent circuit performance.

Two Jacobi-like algorithms for the general joint diagonalization problem with applications to blind source separation
CHENG Guanghui, MIAO Jifei, LI Wenrui
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2019.00.102
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Abstract:

We consider the general problem of the approximate joint diagonalization of a set of non-Hermitian matrices. This problem mainly arises in the data model of the joint blind source separation for two datasets. Based on a special parameterization of the two diagonalizing matrices and on adapted approximations of the classical cost function, we establish two Jacobi-like algorithms. They may serve for the canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) of a third-order tensor, and in some scenarios they can outperform traditional CPD methods. Simulation results demonstrate the competitive performance of the proposed algorithms.

CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS
A 5 mW 1-to-5 GHz Multiband Ladder CMOS Mixer Employing Transconductance Tuning Mechanism Achieving IIP3 of 27 dBm
PRAVINAH Shasidharan, SELVAKUMAR Mariappan, JIA XIN Lim, JAGADHESWARAN Rajendran, NARENDRA KUMAR Aridas
, Available online  , doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.028
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Abstract:
This paper presents a CMOS mixer employing a transconductance tuning (TCT) mechanism to achieve wideband, low power, high gain, and high linearity. The ladder CMOS mixer consists of one current source, one differential amplifier and two differential low noise switching stage. The TCT technique optimizes the optimum drain current requirement and the output voltage at the voltage control oscillator node and the RF output node, thus producing a balance linearity performance with low power consumption for 4 GHz operating bandwidth. The wideband linearity performance is achieved without inductors, thus reducing the size of the chip significantly to 0.5 mm2. Designed in 180-nm CMOS, the TCT mixer operates from 1 GHz to 5 GHz with a 1.2 V supply voltage, resulting in a highest measured result performances of the third-order input intercept point (IIP3) of 35.97 dBm across the local oscillator (LO) input power and 27.2 dBm across the RF input power. The highest measured conversion gain (CG) encapsulated around 29.17 dB under RF input power whereas 22.27 dB across the LO input power at center frequency of 3 GHz. The TCT mixer provides full mixing operation which achieves the measured noise figure (NF) below 5 dB across the IF output frequency. Moreover, the port-to-port isolation less than −30 dB has also been achieved across the RF operating bandwidth. The total power consumption, PDC of the TCT chip is 5 mW. The operating bandwidth of the TCT mixer qualifies it to be integrated into a multiband 5G New Radio receiver system.