Volume 32 Issue 3
May  2023
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LAN Xiaotian, HE Qianhua, YAN Haikang, et al., “A Novel Re-weighted CTC Loss for Data Imbalance in Speech Keyword Spotting,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 465-473, 2023, doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.198
Citation: LAN Xiaotian, HE Qianhua, YAN Haikang, et al., “A Novel Re-weighted CTC Loss for Data Imbalance in Speech Keyword Spotting,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 465-473, 2023, doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.198

A Novel Re-weighted CTC Loss for Data Imbalance in Speech Keyword Spotting

doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.198
Funds:  This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61571192) and Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2021A1515011454)
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  • Author Bio:

    Xiaotian LAN received the B.S. degree in communication engineering from Northeastern University, Shenyang, in 2019. He is currently pursuing the M.S. degree at South China University of Technology. His research interests include speech keyword spotting and automatic speech recognition. (Email: xtianlan@163.com)

    Qianhua HE (corresponding author) received the Ph.D. degree in communication engineering from South China University of Technology in 1993, where he is currently a Full Professor with the School of Electronic and Information Engineering, the B.S. degree in physics from Hunan Normal University in 1987, and the M.S. degree in medical instrument engineering from Xi’an Jiaotong University in 1990. From 2007 to 2008, he was with University of Washington in Seattle USA as a Visiting Scholar. From 1994 to 2001, he was with the Department of Computer Science, City University of Hong Kong, four times as a Research Assistant, a Senior Research Assistant, and a Research Fellow, respectively. His research interests include spoken term detection, audio event detection, speech coding, multimedia retrieval, and digital audio forensic. He is a Senior Member of IEEE. (Email: eeqhhe@scut.edu.cn)

    Haikang YAN received the B.S. degree in communication engineering from Southwest Jiaotong University in 2018. He is currently pursuing the M.S. degree with the South China University of Technology (SCUT). His research interests include speech keyword spotting and audio signal processing. (Email: haikangyan@163.com)

    Yanxiong LI received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electronic engineering from Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China, in 2003 and 2006, respectively, and Ph.D. degree in electronic engineering from SCUT, Guangzhou, China, in 2009. From 2008 to 2009, he worked as a Research Associate with the City University of Hong Kong. From 2013 to 2014, he worked as a Researcher with the University of Sheffield, UK. From Jul. to Aug. 2016, he worked as a Visiting Scholar with the Institute for Infocomm Research, Singapore. From Jul. to Oct. 2019, he worked as a Visiting Scholar with the Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Finland. He is now an Associate Professor with the School of Electronic and Information Engineering, SCUT. His research interests include audio signal processing and machine learning. (Email: eeyxli@scut.edu.cn)

  • Received Date: 2021-06-02
  • Accepted Date: 2022-02-03
  • Available Online: 2022-03-19
  • Publish Date: 2023-05-05
  • Speech keyword spotting system is a critical component of human-computer interfaces. And connectionist temporal classifier (CTC) has been proven to be an effective tool for that task. However, the standard training process of speech keyword spotting faces a data imbalance issue where positive samples are usually far less than negative samples. Numerous easy-training negative examples overwhelm the training, resulting in a degenerated model. To deal with it, this paper tries to reshape the standard CTC loss and proposes a novel re-weighted CTC loss. It evaluates the sample importance by its number of detection errors during training and automatically down-weights the contribution of easy examples, the majorities of which are negatives, making the training focus on samples deserving more training. The proposed method can alleviate the imbalance naturally and make use of all available data efficiently. Evaluation on several sets of keywords selected from AISHELL-1 and AISHELL-2 achieves 16%–38% relative reductions in false rejection rates over standard CTC loss at 0.5 false alarms per keyword per hour in experiments.
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