Volume 32 Issue 4
Jul.  2023
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
DENG Xuan, ZHANG Di, CHEN Yikai, et al., “Characteristic Mode Analysis: Application to Electromagnetic Radiation, Scattering, and Coupling Problems,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 663-677, 2023, doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.200
Citation: DENG Xuan, ZHANG Di, CHEN Yikai, et al., “Characteristic Mode Analysis: Application to Electromagnetic Radiation, Scattering, and Coupling Problems,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 663-677, 2023, doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.200

Characteristic Mode Analysis: Application to Electromagnetic Radiation, Scattering, and Coupling Problems

doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.200
Funds:  This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61971096).
More Information
  • Author Bio:

    Xuan DENG was born in Guilin, Guangxi Province, China, in 1996. He received the B.E. degree in electromagnetics and wireless technology from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu, China, in 2018. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electronic science and technology with the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu, China. His research intersts include computational electromagnetics, characteristic mode theory, and base station antenna arrays. (Email: xuand2017@foxmail.com)

    Di ZHANG was born in Yingshan, Sichuan Province, China, in 1999. He received the B.E. degree in electronic science and technology from Soochow University, Suzhou, China, in 2020. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree in electronic science and technology with the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu, China. His research interests include antenna arrays, characteristic mode theory, and optimization algorithms. (Email: funsayu@163.com)

    Yikai CHEN (corresponding author) was born in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, in 1984. He received the B.E. and Ph.D. degrees in electromagnetics and microwave technology from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu, China, in 2006 and 2011, respectively.From 2011 to 2015, he was a Research Scientist with the Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, Singapore. In 2015, he joined UESTC, as a Full Professor. He has authored or co-authored over 200 peer-reviewed articles (including over 70 IEEE journal articles) and over 70 patents/patent disclosures. He has co-authored the book entitled the Characteristic Modes: Theory and Applications in Antenna Engineering (John Wiley, 2015), and one book chapter Differential Evolution: Fundamentals and Applications in Electrical Engineering (IEEE Wiley, 2009). His current research interests include ultra-wideband phased antenna arrays, radar cross section reduction techniques, 5G base station antenna arrays, characteristic mode theory, and time modulation techniques for antenna array systems.Dr. Chen is a Member of the Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society (ACES). He was a recipient of the National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation Award of China in 2013. He serves as an Associate Editor for the Electronics Letters and the Chinese Journal of Electronics, the review boards of 20 journals, and has also served many international conferences as TPC Members, a Session Organizer, and a Session Chair. (Email: ykchen@uestc.edu.cn)

    Shiwen YANG was born in Langzhong, Sichuan Province, China, in 1967. He received the B.S. degree in electronic science and technology from East China Normal University, Shanghai, China, in 1989, and the M.S. degree in electromagnetics and microwave technology and the Ph.D. degree in physical electronics from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu, China, in 1992 and 1998, respectively.From 1994 to 1998, he was a Lecturer with the Institute of High Energy Electronics, UESTC. From 1998 to 2001, he was a Research Fellow at the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. From 2002 to 2005, he was a Research Scientist with Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore. Since 2005, he has been a Full Professor with the School of Electronic Engineering, UESTC. Since 2015, he has been a Chang-Jiang Professor with UESTC nominated by the Ministry of Education of China. He has authored or coauthored more than 300 technical papers. His current research interests include antennas, antennas arrays, optimization techniques, and computational electromagnetics. Dr. Yang was a recipient of the Foundation for China Distinguished Young Investigator presented by the National Science Foundation of China in 2011. He is the Chair of the IEEE Chengdu AP/EMC Joint Chapter and serves as an Associate Editor for IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. (Email: swnyang@uestc.edu.cn)

  • Received Date: 2022-07-04
  • Accepted Date: 2022-11-15
  • Available Online: 2023-02-16
  • Publish Date: 2023-07-05
  • Recent years, the theory of characteristic modes has emerged as a powerful analysis technique in antenna engineering, providing a means to reveal the natural resonant properties of objects and providing a variety of modal parameters. Based on these modal parameters, advanced techniques have been developed based on the theory of characteristic modes to address a wide range of electromagnetic radiation, scattering, and coupling problems. This review provides an overview of some of the latest characteristic mode-based techniques for wideband design, circular polarization, radiation pattern control, scattering control, and mutual coupling control. In addition, future perspectives are discussed, highlighting the potential of characteristic modes for addressing even more complex electromagnetics problems.
  • loading
  • [1]
    R. J. Garbacz, “Modal expansions for resonance scattering phenomena,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.53, no.8, pp.856–864, 1965. doi: 10.1109/PROC.1965.4064
    [2]
    R. Garbacz and R. Turpin, “A generalized expansion for radiated and scattered fields,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.19, no.3, pp.348–358, 1971. doi: 10.1109/TAP.1971.1139935
    [3]
    R. Harrington and J. Mautz, “Theory of characteristic modes for conducting bodies,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.19, no.5, pp.622–628, 1971. doi: 10.1109/TAP.1971.1139999
    [4]
    R. Harrington and J. Mautz, “Computation of characteristic modes for conducting bodies,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.19, no.5, pp.629–639, 1971. doi: 10.1109/TAP.1971.1139990
    [5]
    R. Harrington, J. Mautz, and Y. Chang, “Characteristic modes for dielectric and magnetic bodies,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.20, no.2, pp.194–198, 1972. doi: 10.1109/TAP.1972.1140154
    [6]
    Y. K. Chen, “Alternative surface integral equation-based characteristic mode analysis of dielectric resonator antennas,” IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, vol.10, no.2, pp.193–201, 2016. doi: 10.1049/iet-map.2015.0304
    [7]
    P. Ylä-Oijala, “Generalized theory of characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.67, no.6, pp.3915–3923, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2905794
    [8]
    L. W. Guo, Y. K. Chen, and S. W. Yang, “Generalized characteristic-mode formulation for composite structures with arbitrarily metallic–dielectric combinations,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.66, no.7, pp.3556–3566, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2829843
    [9]
    Q. Wu, “General metallic-dielectric structures: A characteristic mode analysis using volume-surface formulations,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol.61, no.3, pp.27–36, 2019. doi: 10.1109/MAP.2019.2907876
    [10]
    P. Ylä-Oijala, A. Lehtovuori, H. Wallén, et al., “Coupling of characteristic modes on PEC and lossy dielectric structures,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.67, no.4, pp.2565–2573, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2893300
    [11]
    X. Y. Guo, R. Z. Lian, H. L. Zhang, et al., “Characteristic mode formulations for penetrable objects based on separation of dissipation power and use of single surface integral equation,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.69, no.3, pp.1535–1544, 2021. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2020.3026890
    [12]
    Q. Wu, “Characteristic mode analysis of composite metallic-dielectric structures using impedance boundary condition,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.67, no.12, pp.7415–7424, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2934902
    [13]
    R. F. Harrington and J. R. Mautz, “Characteristic modes for aperture problems,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol.33, no.6, pp.500–505, 1985. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.1985.1133105
    [14]
    M. Cabedo-Fabres, E. Antonino-Daviu, A. Valero-Nogueira, et al., “The theory of characteristic modes revisited: A contribution to the design of antennas for modern applications,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol.49, no.5, pp.52–68, 2007. doi: 10.1109/MAP.2007.4395295
    [15]
    J. Ethier and D. A. McNamara, “The use of generalized characteristic modes in the design of MIMO antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.45, no.3, pp.1124–1127, 2009. doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2009.2012649
    [16]
    K. A. Obeidat, B. D. Raines, and R. G. Rojas, “Application of characteristic modes and non-foster multiport loading to the design of broadband antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.58, no.1, pp.203–207, 2010. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2009.2036281
    [17]
    K. A. Obeidat, B. D. Raines, R. G. Rojas, et al., “Design of frequency reconfigurable antennas using the theory of network characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.58, no.10, pp.3106–3113, 2010. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2010.2055787
    [18]
    J. J. Adams and J. T. Bernhard, “A modal approach to tuning and bandwidth enhancement of an electrically small antenna,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.59, no.4, pp.1085–1092, 2011. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2109683
    [19]
    R. Martens, E. Safin, and D. Manteuffel, “Inductive and capacitive excitation of the characteristic modes of small terminals”, in Proceedings of 2011 Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference, pp.1–4, 2011.
    [20]
    Y. K. Chen and C. F. Wang, “Characteristic-mode-based improvement of circularly polarized U-slot and E-shaped patch antennas,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.11, pp.1474–1477, 2012. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2231046
    [21]
    H. Li, B. K. Lau, Z. N. Ying, et al., “Decoupling of multiple antennas in terminals with chassis excitation using polarization diversity, angle diversity and current control,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.60, no.12, pp.5947–5957, 2012. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2012.2213056
    [22]
    C. G. M. Ryan and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Two compact, wideband, and decoupled meander-line antennas based on metamaterial concepts,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.11, pp.1277–1280, 2012. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2225134
    [23]
    Y. K. Chen and C. F. Wang, Characteristics Modes: Theory and Applications in Antenna Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA, pp.52–55, 2015.
    [24]
    C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2016.
    [25]
    D. M. Pozar and D. Schaubert, Microstrip Antennas: The Analysis and Design of Microstrip Antennas and Arrays, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
    [26]
    C. H. Wang, Y. K. Chen, and S. W. Yang, “Bandwidth enhancement of a dual-polarized slot antenna using characteristic modes,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.17, no.6, pp.988–992, 2018. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2018.2828881
    [27]
    N. W. Liu, L. Zhu, Z. X. Liu, et al., “Radiation pattern reshaping of a narrow slot antenna for bandwidth enhancement and stable pattern using characteristic modes analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.70, no.1, pp.726–731, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2021.3098535
    [28]
    J. F. Lin and Q. X. Chu, “Extending bandwidth of antennas with coupling theory for characteristic modes,” IEEE Access, vol.5, pp.22262–22271, 2017. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2761888
    [29]
    D. L. Wen, Y. Hao, H. Y. Wang, and H. Zhou, “Design of a wideband antenna with stable omnidirectional radiation pattern using the theory of characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.65, no.5, pp.2671–2676, 2017. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2679767
    [30]
    J. F. Lin and L. Zhu, “Bandwidth and gain enhancement of patch antenna based on coupling analysis of characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.68, no.11, pp.7275–7286, 2020. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2020.2995426
    [31]
    J. F. Lin and Q. X. Chu, “Increasing bandwidth of slot antennas with combined characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.66, no.6, pp.3148–3153, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2811846
    [32]
    F. H. Lin and Z. N. Chen, “Low-profile wideband metasurface antennas using characteristic mode analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.65, no.4, pp.1706–1713, 2017. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2671036
    [33]
    F. H. Lin and Z. N. Chen, “Truncated impedance sheet model for low-profile broadband nonresonant-cell metasurface antennas using characteristic mode analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.66, no.10, pp.5043–5051, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2854366
    [34]
    S. H. Liu, D. Q. Yang, Y. P. Chen, et al., “Low-profile broadband metasurface antenna under multimode resonance,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.20, no.9, pp.1696–1700, 2021. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2021.3094302
    [35]
    M. Han and W. B. Dou, “Compact clock-shaped broadband circularly polarized antenna based on characteristic mode analysis,” IEEE Access, vol.7, pp.159952–159959, 2019. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2951371
    [36]
    J. F. Lin and L. Zhu, “Low-profile high-directivity circularly-polarized differential-fed patch antenna with characteristic modes analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.69, no.2, pp.723–733, 2021. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2020.3016465
    [37]
    S. H. Liu, D. Q. Yang, and J. Pan, “A low-profile broadband dual-circularly-polarized metasurface antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.18, no.7, pp.1395–1399, 2019. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2019.2917758
    [38]
    N. W. Liu, L. Zhu, Z. X. Liu, et al., “A novel low-profile circularly polarized diversity patch antenna with extremely small spacing, reduced size, and low mutual coupling,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.70, no.1, pp.135–144, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2021.3111344
    [39]
    H. H. Tran, N. Nguyen-Trong, and A. M. Abbosh, “Simple design procedure of a broadband circularly polarized slot monopole antenna assisted by characteristic mode analysis,” IEEE Access, vol.6, pp.78386–78393, 2018. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2885015
    [40]
    C. Zhao and C. F. Wang, “Characteristic mode design of wide band circularly polarized patch antenna consisting of H-shaped unit cells,” IEEE Access, vol.6, pp.25292–25299, 2018. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2828878
    [41]
    F. A. Dicandia and S. Genovesi, “Characteristic modes analysis of non-uniform metasurface superstrate for nanosatellite antenna design,” IEEE Access, vol.8, pp.176050–176061, 2020. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3027251
    [42]
    G. J. Foschini, “Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in a fading environment when using multi-element antennas,” Bell Labs Technical Journal, vol.1, no.2, pp.41–59, 1996. doi: 10.1002/bltj.2015
    [43]
    D. Manteuffel and R. Martens, “Compact multimode multielement antenna for indoor UWB massive MIMO,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.64, no.7, pp.2689–2697, 2016. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2016.2537388
    [44]
    N. Peitzmeier, T. Hahn, and D. Manteuffel, “Systematic design of multimode antennas for MIMO applications by leveraging symmetry,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.70, no.1, pp.145–155, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2021.3098610
    [45]
    Q. Y. Li and T. Y. Shih, “Characteristic-mode-based design of planar in-band full-duplex antennas,” IEEE Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol.1, pp.329–338, 2020. doi: 10.1109/OJAP.2020.3007728
    [46]
    H. Li, Y. Tan, B. K. Lau, et al., “Characteristic mode based tradeoff analysis of antenna-chassis interactions for multiple antenna terminals,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.60, no.2, pp.490–502, 2012. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2011.2173438
    [47]
    K. K. Kishor and S. V. Hum, “A two-port chassis-mode MIMO antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.12, pp.690–693, 2013. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2013.2264431
    [48]
    H. Aliakbari and B. K. Lau, “Low-profile two-port MIMO terminal antenna for low LTE bands with wideband multimodal excitation,” IEEE Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol.1, pp.368–378, 2020. doi: 10.1109/OJAP.2020.3010916
    [49]
    C. J. Deng, Z. Xu, A. D. Ren, et al., “TCM-based bezel antenna design with small ground clearance for mobile terminals,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.67, no.2, pp.745–754, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2880045
    [50]
    L. W. Chen, Y. Huang, H. Y. Wang, et al., “Metal rim antenna with small clearance based on TCM for smartphone applications”, in Proceedings of the 2021 15th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Dusseldorf, Germany, pp.1–3, 2021.
    [51]
    Y. Liu, A. D. Ren, H. Liu, et al., “Eight-port MIMO array using characteristic mode theory for 5G smartphone applications,” IEEE Access, vol.7, pp.45679–45692, 2019. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2909070
    [52]
    F. A. Dicandia, S. Genovesi, and A. Monorchio, “Null-steering antenna design using phase-shifted characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.64, no.7, pp.2698–2706, 2016. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2016.2556700
    [53]
    F. A. Dicandia, S. Genovesi, and A. Monorchio, “Advantageous exploitation of characteristic modes analysis for the design of 3-D null-scanning antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.65, no.8, pp.3924–3934, 2017. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2716402
    [54]
    Z. P. Liang, J. Ouyang, F. Yang, et al., “Design of license plate RFID tag antenna using characteristic mode pattern synthesis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.65, no.10, pp.4964–4970, 2017. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2734071
    [55]
    D. W. Kim, J. H. Kim, and S. Nam, “Beam steering of a multi-port chassis antenna using the least squares method and theory of characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.67, no.8, pp.5684–5688, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2920288
    [56]
    C. H. Wang, Y. K. Chen, G. Liu, et al., “Aircraft-integrated VHF band antenna array designs using characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.68, no.11, pp.7358–7369, 2020. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2020.2997468
    [57]
    Y. K. Chen and C. F. Wang, “HF band shipboard antenna design using characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.63, no.3, pp.1004–1013, 2015. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2015.2391288
    [58]
    Y. K. Chen and C. F. Wang, “Electrically small UAV antenna design using characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.62, no.2, pp.535–545, 2014. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2013.2289999
    [59]
    C. H. Wang, Y. K. Chen, and S. W. Yang, “Application of characteristic mode theory in HF band aircraft-integrated multiantenna system designs,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.67, no.1, pp.513–521, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2874800
    [60]
    H. Li, M. Wu, W. C. Li, et al., “Reducing hand effect on mobile handset antennas by shaping radiation patterns,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.69, no.8, pp.4279–4288, 2021. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2020.3048535
    [61]
    H. Li, S. N. Sun, W. C. Li, et al., “Systematic pattern synthesis for single antennas using characteristic mode analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.68, no.7, pp.5199–5208, 2020. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2020.2978939
    [62]
    Y. K. Chen and C. F. Wang, “Synthesis of reactively controlled antenna arrays using characteristic modes and DE algorithm,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.11, pp.385–388, 2012. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2012.2191584
    [63]
    Y. Chen and C. F. Wang, “Electrically loaded Yagi-Uda antenna optimizations using characteristic modes and differential evolution,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol.26, no.8-9, pp.1018–1028, 2012. doi: 10.1080/09205071.2012.710356
    [64]
    Y. J. Wu, H. Lin, and J. Xiong, et al., “A broadband metamaterial absorber design using characteristic modes analysis,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol.129, no.13, article no.134902, 2021. doi: 10.1063/5.0043054
    [65]
    Z. C. Song, J. Q. Zhu, L. Yang, et al., “Wideband metasurface absorber (metabsorber) using characteristic mode analysis,” Optics Express, vol.29, no.22, pp.35387–35399, 2021. doi: 10.1364/OE.443182
    [66]
    E. F. Knott, J. F. Shaeffer, and M. T. Tuley, Radar Cross Section, 2nd ed., Raleigh, NC, USA: SciTech Pub., doi: 10.1049/SBRA026E.
    [67]
    E. A. Elghannai and R. G. Rojas, “Interpretation of antenna scattering phenomena with the aid of characteristic mode theory,” in Proceedings of 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, pp.1123–1124, 2018.
    [68]
    X. Deng, Y. K. Chen, and S. W. Yang, “Characteristic mode formulation for antennas with waveguide port feeding structures,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.20, no.10, pp.2063–2067, 2021. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2021.3103440
    [69]
    J. C. Zhao, Y. K. Chen, and S. W. Yang, “In-band radar cross-section reduction of slot antenna using characteristic modes,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.17, no.7, pp.1166–1170, 2018. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2018.2836926
    [70]
    L. W. Guo, Y. K. Chen, and S. W. Yang, “Scattering decomposition and control for fully dielectric-coated PEC bodies using characteristic modes,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.17, no.1, pp.118–121, 2018. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2017.2777496
    [71]
    C. H. Wang, Y. K. Chen, and S. W. Yang, “In-band scattering reduction for a U-slot patch antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.19, no.2, pp.312–316, 2020. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2019.2961362
    [72]
    Y. K. Liu, B. Du, D. Jia, et al., “Ultra-wideband radar cross-section reduction for ring-shaped microstrip antenna based on characteristic mode analysis,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol.63, no.5, pp.1538–1546, 2021. doi: 10.1002/mop.32791
    [73]
    J. L. T. Ethier and D. A. McNamara, “Sub-structure characteristic mode concept for antenna shape synthesis,” Electronics Letters, vol.48, no.9, pp.471–472, 2012. doi: 10.1049/el.2012.0392
    [74]
    S. Ghosal, R. Sinha, A. De, et al., “Characteristic mode analysis of mutual coupling,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.70, no.2, pp.1008–1019, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2021.3119117
    [75]
    F. A. Dicandia, S. Genovesi, and A. Monorchio, “Efficient excitation of characteristic modes for radiation pattern control by using a novel balanced inductive coupling element,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.66, no.3, pp.1102–1113, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2790046
    [76]
    D. W. Kim and S. Nam, “Systematic design of a multiport MIMO antenna with bilateral symmetry based on characteristic mode analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.66, no.3, pp.1076–1085, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2017.2787607
    [77]
    W. Su, Q. Y. Zhang, S. Alkaraki, et al., “Radiation energy and mutual coupling evaluation for multimode MIMO antenna based on the theory of characteristic mode,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.67, no.1, pp.74–84, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2878078
    [78]
    N. Peitzmeier and D. Manteuffel, “Selective excitation of characteristic modes on an electrically large antenna for MIMO applications,” in Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, London, UK, pp.1–5, 2018.
    [79]
    N. Peitzmeier and D. Manteuffel, “Upper bounds and design guidelines for realizing uncorrelated ports on multimode antennas based on symmetry analysis of characteristic modes,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.67, no.6, pp.3902–3914, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2905718
    [80]
    F. H. Lin and Z. N. Chen, “A method of suppressing higher order modes for improving radiation performance of metasurface multiport antennas using characteristic mode analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.66, no.4, pp.1894–1902, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2806401
    [81]
    J. F. Lin, H. Deng, and L. Zhu, “Design of low-profile compact MIMO antenna on a single radiating patch using simple and systematic characteristic modes method,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.70, no.3, pp.1612–1622, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2021.3111518
    [82]
    Z. P. Ma, Z. Yang, Q. Wu, et al., “Out-of-band mutual coupling suppression for microstrip antennas using characteristic mode analysis and shorting pins,” IEEE Access, vol.7, pp.102679–102688, 2019. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2931639
    [83]
    Q. Wu, W. Su, Z. Li, et al., “Reduction in out-of-band antenna coupling using characteristic mode analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.64, no.7, pp.2732–2742, 2016. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2016.2522459
    [84]
    P. Y. Liang, W. Su, and Q. Wu, “Characteristic mode analysis of near-field mutual coupling between wire and loop antennas, ” in Proceedings of 2016 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Shenzhen, China, pp.263–265, 2016.
    [85]
    P. Y. Liang and Q. Wu, “Characteristic mode analysis of antenna mutual coupling in the near field,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.66, no.7, pp.3757–3762, 2018. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2018.2823867
    [86]
    H. W. Sheng and Z. N. Chen, “Radiation pattern improvement of cross-band dipoles using inductive-loading mode-suppression method,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.67, no.5, pp.3467–3471, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2019.2902649
    [87]
    M. Li, B. Xiao, C. F. Zhou, et al., “Novel CMA scheme to design self-decoupled MIMO dipole pair for base-station applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.70, no.4, pp.2480–2489, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TAP.2021.3118812
    [88]
    S. Ghosal, R. Sinha, and A. De, “Further insights into coupled characteristic modes,” in Proceedings of 2021 IEEE Indian Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, pp.820–823, 2021.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(10)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (1261) PDF downloads(261) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return