Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Bo ZHOU, Yifan LI, Zuhang WANG, “A Fast Startup Crystal Oscillator with Digital SAR-AFC based Two-Step Injection,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. x, no. x, pp. 1–7, xxxx doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.043
Citation: Bo ZHOU, Yifan LI, Zuhang WANG, “A Fast Startup Crystal Oscillator with Digital SAR-AFC based Two-Step Injection,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. x, no. x, pp. 1–7, xxxx doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.043

A Fast Startup Crystal Oscillator with Digital SAR-AFC based Two-Step Injection

doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.043
More Information
  • Author Bio:

    Bo ZHOU received the B.S. degree from Hunan University, Changsha, China, in 2002, the M.S. degree from Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China, in 2005, and the Ph.D. degree from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 2012, respectively. In 2005, he joined STMicroelectronics Company Ltd., Shanghai, and focused on car-body electronic power design. In 2007, he joined Agere System Company Ltd. (acquired by LSI), Shanghai, and focused on magnetic head read–write channel design. In 2012, he joined the faculty of the School of Integrated Circuits and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing. In 2014 and 2015, he was a Visiting Scholar with Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA, where he was focused on energy harvesting and wireless data transmission. His current research interests include delta–sigma phase-locked loop (PLL), fully digital transmitter, polar transmitter, frequency-modulated ultrawideband (FM-UWB) transceivers, and low-power biomedical electronics. (Email: zhoubo07@bit.edu.cn)

    Yifan LI received the B.S. degree from the School of Information and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, in 2021. He is currently pursuing the M.S. degree at the School of Integrated Circuits and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China. His current research interests include low-power fast startup crystal oscillators, low-complexity frequency-modulated ultrawideband (FM-UWB) transmitters, and current-steering digital-to-analog converters (DACs). (Email: liyifan696345@163.com)

    Zuhang WANG received the B.S. degree from University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China, in 2020, and the M.S. degree from Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China, in 2023, respectively. In 2019, he joined the Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, as an Intern, focusing on optical communications circuits design. He is now working at Beijing Microelectronics Technology Institute. His research interests include low-power FM-UWB transceivers, low-power FMCW radars, CP PLLs and high-speed interface circuits. (Email: wangzh@alu.uestc.edu.cn)

  • Corresponding author: Email: zhoubo07@bit.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 2022-02-14
  • Accepted Date: 2022-08-08
  • Available Online: 2023-12-14
  • Crystal oscillators (XOs) provide a high-precision reference frequency but have a long startup time, which severely increases the average power consumption in duty-cycled systems. This paper proposes a fully-digital low-cost two-step injection (TSI) technique, by using a successive approximation register (SAR) based auto frequency control (AFC) loop, to speed up the startup behavior of XOs. A theoretical analysis is carried out to determine the optimum injection time and design low-power XOs. Fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process, the proposed 12-MHz fast startup XO occupies an active area of 0.02 mm$ ^{2} $ and achieves a startup time less than 35 µs. The XO power consumption in the steady state is 40 µW from a 1.0-V supply, with a startup energy of 17.2 nJ.
  • loading
  • [1]
    S. Iguchi, H. Fuketa, T. Sakurai, et al., “Variation-tolerant quick-start-up CMOS crystal oscillator with chirp injection and negative resistance booster,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 496–508, 2016. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2015.2499240
    [2]
    H. Esmaeelzadeh and S. Pamarti, “A quick startup technique for high- Q oscillators using precisely timed energy injection,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 692–702, 2018. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2017.2766208
    [3]
    K. M. Megawer, N. Pal, A. Elkholy, et al., “A fast startup CMOS crystal oscillator using two-step injection,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 3257–3268, 2019. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2019.2936296
    [4]
    M. Ding, Y. H. Liu, Y. Zhang, et al., “5.3 a 95 µW 24MHz digitally controlled crystal oscillator for IoT applications with 36nJ start-up energy and >13× start-up time reduction using a fully-autonomous dynamically-adjusted load,” in Proceedings of 2017 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 90–91, 2017.
    [5]
    A. Karimi-Bidhendi, H. R Pu, and P. Heydari, “Study and design of a fast start-up crystal oscillator using precise dithered injection and active inductance,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 2543–2554, 2019. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2019.2920084
    [6]
    D. Griffith, J. Murdock, and P. T. Røine, “5.9 a 24 MHz crystal oscillator with robust fast start-up using dithered injection,” in Proceedings of 2016 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 104–105, 2016.
    [7]
    K. M. Lei, P. I. Mak, M. K. Law, et al., “A regulation-free sub-0.5V 16/24 MHz crystal oscillator for energy-harvesting BLE radios with 14.2 nJ startup energy and 31.8pW steady-state power,” in Proceedings of 2018 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 52–54, 2018.
    [8]
    B. Verhoef, J. Prummel, W. Kruiskamp, et al., “18.6 A 32 MHz crystal oscillator with fast start-up using synchronized signal injection,” in Proceedings of 2019 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 304–305, 2019.
    [9]
    H. Luo, S. Kundu, C. Lee, et al., “A 12MHz/38.4 MHz fast start-up crystal oscillator using impedance guided chirp injection in 22 nm FinFET CMOS,” in Proceedings of 2021 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC), Austin, TX, USA, pp. 1–2, 2021.
    [10]
    A. Karimi-Bidhendi and P. Heydari, “A study of multi-phase injection on accelerating crystal oscillator start-up,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II:Express Briefs, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 2868–2872, 2020. doi: 10.1109/TCSII.2020.2978097
    [11]
    Y. R. Jin, B. Zhou, Y. J. Liu, et al., “A 0.8-V low-power low-cost CMOS crystal oscillator with high frequency accuracy,” in Proceedings of the 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Integrated Circuits and Microsystems (ICICM), Nanjing, China, pp. 285–288, 2020.
    [12]
    S. Panyai and A. Thanachayanont, “Design and realization of a process and temperature compensated CMOS ring oscillator,” in Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology, Phetchaburi, Thailand, pp. 1–4, 2012.
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(13)  / Tables(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (85) PDF downloads(26) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return