Volume 33 Issue 4
Jul.  2024
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Yuanlong CAO, Junjie LI, Kailin CHAO, et al., “Blockchain Meets Generative Behavior Steganography: A Novel Covert Communication Framework for Secure IoT Edge Computing,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 886–898, 2024 doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.382
Citation: Yuanlong CAO, Junjie LI, Kailin CHAO, et al., “Blockchain Meets Generative Behavior Steganography: A Novel Covert Communication Framework for Secure IoT Edge Computing,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 886–898, 2024 doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.382

Blockchain Meets Generative Behavior Steganography: A Novel Covert Communication Framework for Secure IoT Edge Computing

doi: 10.23919/cje.2023.00.382
More Information
  • Author Bio:

    Yuanlong CAO received the B.S. degree in computer science and technology from Nanchang University, China, in 2006, the M.S. degree in software engineering from the Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Beijing, China, in 2008, and the Ph.D. degree in communication and information system from the Institute of Network Technology, BUPT, in 2014. He was an Intern/Software Engineer with BEA TTC, IBM CDL, and DT Research, Beijing, China, from 2007 to 2011. He is currently a Professor with the School of Computer and Information Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, China. His research interests include multimedia communications, network security and next-generation Internet technology. Dr. Cao serves as the Editor for KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems. He has served as the Lead Guest Editor for Mobile Networks and Applications, Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing, International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Electronics, Future Internet, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, Security and Communication Networks, and the Guest Editor for IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, Computers, Materials & Continua. He serves as the Co-General Chair of EAI MONAMI 2022, EAI DIONE 2023, and the Co-Chair of IEEE 9th WFIoT Workshop on Advancements in Metaverse and IoT, respectively. He has also served as the Technical Reviewer for several journals, including the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking, etc. (Email: ylcao@jxnu.edu.cn)

    Junjie LI received the B.S. degree in software engineering from the School of Software, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, China, in 2023. He is currently working toward the M.S. degree in management science and engineering with Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, China. His research interests include image and signal processing, Internet technology, information security, and information management. (Email: lijunjie@jxnu.edu.cn)

    Kailin CHAO graduated in 2022 with a B.S. degree in information management and information systems from Lanzhou University of Finance and Economics. Currently he is pursuing a M.S. degree in management science and engineering at Jiangxi Normal University. His main research interests include blockchain, federated learning, and information security. (Email: chaokailin@jxnu.edu.cn)

    Jianmao XIAO received the Ph.D. degree from the College of Intelligence and Computing, Tianjin University. He is an Assistant Professor at Jiangxi Normal University, is the Deputy Director of the Jiangxi Provincial Engineering Research Center of Blockchain Data Security and Governance. He is a Member of the CCF TCSC. His main research interests include blockchain, service computing, intelligent software engineering. Dr. Xiao has authored more than 30 high-level academic papers, served as MONAMI 2022 Web Chair and ICSS 2022 PC Member. He also served as a reviewer for many domestic and international high-level journals and conferences in related fields. (Email: jm_xiao@jxnu.edu.cn)

    Gang LEI is currently an Associate Professor and the Vice Chairman of the School of Software, Jiangxi Normal University, China, where he is also serving as the Associate Director of the Academic Committee. His research interests include big data technology, computer network management, and information systems. (Email: leigang@jxnu.edu.cn)

  • Corresponding author: Email: ylcao@jxnu.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 2023-12-01
  • Accepted Date: 2024-03-26
  • Available Online: 2024-04-28
  • Publish Date: 2024-07-05
  • The rapid development of Internet of things (IoT) and edge computing technologies has brought forth numerous possibilities for the intelligent and digital future. The frequent communication and interaction between devices inevitably generate a large amount of sensitive information. Deploying a blockchain network to store sensitive data is crucial for ensuring privacy and security. The openness and synchronicity of blockchain networks give rise to challenges such as transaction privacy and storage capacity issues, significantly impeding their development in the context of edge computing and IoT. This paper proposes a reliable fog computing service solution based on a blockchain fog architecture. This paper stores data files in the inter planetary file system (IPFS) and encrypts the file hash values used for retrieving data files with stream cipher encryption. It employs a steganographic transmission technique leveraging AlphaZero’s Gomoku algorithm to discretely transmit the stream cipher key across the blockchain network without a carrier, thus achieving dual encryption. This approach aims to mitigate the storage burden on the blockchain network while ensuring the security of transaction data. Experimental results demonstrate that the model enhances the transmission capacity of confidential information from kilobytes (KB) to megabytes (MB) and exhibits high levels of covert and security features.
  • loading
  • [1]
    J. W. Huang, C. X. Zhang, and J. B. Zhang, “A multi-queue approach of energy efficient task scheduling for sensor hubs,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 242–247, 2020. doi: 10.1049/cje.2020.02.001
    [2]
    M. L. Dai, S. Y. Xu, S. J. Shao, et al., “Blockchain-based reliable fog-cloud service solution for IIoT,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 359–366, 2021. doi: 10.1049/cje.2021.02.009
    [3]
    J. W. Huang, H. Gao, S. H. Wan, et al., “AoI-aware energy control and computation offloading for industrial IoT,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 139, pp. 29–37, 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.future.2022.09.007
    [4]
    Y. Q. Liu, K. Qian, K. Wang, et al., “BCmaster: A compatible framework for comprehensively analyzing and monitoring blockchain systems in IoT,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 9, no. 22, pp. 22529–22546, 2022. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2022.3182004
    [5]
    J. Su and M. N. Jiang, “A hybrid entropy and blockchain approach for network security defense in SDN-based IIoT,” Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 531–541, 2023. doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.103
    [6]
    S. L. Xu, C. L. Guo, R. Q. Hu, et al., “Blockchain-inspired secure computation offloading in a vehicular cloud network,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 9, no. 16, pp. 14723–14740, 2022. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3054866
    [7]
    D. X. Liu, A. Alahmadi, J. B. Ni, et al., “Anonymous reputation system for IIoT-enabled retail marketing atop PoS blockchain,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 3527–3537, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TII.2019.2898900
    [8]
    Y. J. Han, Y. W. Zhang, and S. H. Vermund, “Blockchain technology for electronic health records,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 19, no. 23, article no. 15577, 2022. doi: 10.3390/ijerph192315577
    [9]
    M. Naz, F. A. Al-zahrani, R. Khalid, et al., “A secure data sharing platform using blockchain and interplanetary file system,” Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 24, article no. 7054, 2019. doi: 10.3390/su11247054
    [10]
    X. J. Liu, W. B. Wang, D. Niyato, et al., “Evolutionary game for mining pool selection in blockchain networks,” IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 760–763, 2018. doi: 10.1109/LWC.2018.2820009
    [11]
    M. Massaro, “Digital transformation in the healthcare sector through blockchain technology. insights from academic research and business developments,” Technovation, vol. 120, article no. 102386, 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.technovation.2021.102386
    [12]
    S. Ghimire, J. Y. Choi, and B. Lee, “Using blockchain for improved video integrity verification,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 108–121, 2020. doi: 10.1109/TMM.2019.2925961
    [13]
    P. Gao, P. X. Chai, and J. Lang, “Behavior steganography in social networks based on 0–1 knapsack algorithm,” Acta Electonica Sinica, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 753–758, 2022. (in Chinese) doi: 10.12263/DZXB.20210742
    [14]
    A. Cheddad, J. Condell, K. Curran, et al., “Digital image steganography: Survey and analysis of current methods,” Signal Processing, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 727–752, 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.sigpro.2009.08.010
    [15]
    M. S. Rathore, M. Poongodi, P. Saurabh, et al., “A novel trust-based security and privacy model for internet of vehicles using encryption and steganography,” Computers and Electrical Engineering, vol. 102, article no. 108205, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.compeleceng.2022.108205
    [16]
    O. Torki, M. Ashouri-Talouki, and M. Mahdavi, “Blockchain for steganography: Advantages, new algorithms and open challenges,” in Proceedings of the 18th International ISC Conference on Information Security and Cryptology, Isfahan, Iran, Islamic Republic of, pp. 1–5, 2021.
    [17]
    S. Y. Zheng, C. Q. Yin, and B. Wu, “Keys as secret messages: Provably secure and efficiency-balanced steganography on blockchain,” in Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE Intl Conf on Parallel & Distributed Processing with Applications, Big Data & Cloud Computing, Sustainable Computing & Communications, Social Computing & Networking, New York City, NY, USA, pp. 1269–1278, 2021.
    [18]
    D. Silver, T. Hubert, J. Schrittwieser, et al., “Mastering chess and shogi by self-play with a general reinforcement learning algorithm,” arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1712.01815, 2017.
    [19]
    F. Zhang and Y. Ding, “Research on the application of internet of things and block chain technology in improving supply chain financial risk management,” in Proceedings of the 2021 International Conference on Computer, Blockchain and Financial Development, Nanjing, China, pp. 347–350, 2021.
    [20]
    V. Hassija, V. Chamola, V. Gupta, et al., “A survey on supply chain security: Application areas, security threats, and solution architectures,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 6222–6246, 2021. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2020.3025775
    [21]
    Q. Q. Huang, R. Wen, Y. Han, et al., “Intelligent fault identification for industrial internet of things via prototype-guided partial domain adaptation with momentum weight,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 10, no. 18, pp. 16381–16391, 2023. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2023.3267830
    [22]
    P. Zhang, C. Cui, D. Liu, et al., “Data security sharing and interaction method of regulation system based on blockchain,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 10th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference, Chongqing, China, pp. 1071–1074, 2022.
    [23]
    Z. Zhou, Y. L. Tian, J. B. Xiong, et al., “Blockchain-enabled secure and trusted federated data sharing in IIoT,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 6669–6681, 2023. doi: 10.1109/TII.2022.3215192
    [24]
    J. N. Wei, Q. C. Zhu, Q. M. Li, et al., “A redactable blockchain framework for secure federated learning in industrial internet of things,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 9, no. 18, pp. 17901–17911, 2022. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2022.3162499
    [25]
    S. Qahtan, K. Y. Sharif, A. A. Zaidan, et al., “Novel multi security and privacy benchmarking framework for blockchain-based IoT healthcare industry 4.0 systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 6415–6423, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TII.2022.3143619
    [26]
    V. Mothukuri, R. M. Parizi, S. Pouriyeh, et al., “FabricFL: Blockchain-in-the-loop federated learning for trusted decentralized systems,” IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 3711–3722, 2022. doi: 10.1109/JSYST.2021.3124513
    [27]
    P. Kumar, R. Kumar, G. P. Gupta, et al., “P2TIF: A blockchain and deep learning framework for privacy-preserved threat intelligence in industrial IoT,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 6358–6367, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TII.2022.3142030
    [28]
    R. Kumar, P. Kumar, R. Tripathi, et al., “A privacy-preserving-based secure framework using blockchain-enabled deep-learning in cooperative intelligent transport system,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 16492–16503, 2022. doi: 10.1109/TITS.2021.3098636
    [29]
    Q. Dang, W. B. Shang, L. Yan, et al., “Power business data sharing system based on blockchain and cryptography technology,” in Proceedings of the 2021 International Conference on Networking, Communications and Information Technology, Manchester, UK, pp. 382–386, 2021.
    [30]
    A. H. Mohsin, A. A. Zaidan, B. B. Zaidan, et al., “PSO–blockchain-based image steganography: Towards a new method to secure updating and sharing COVID-19 data in decentralised hospitals intelligence architecture,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 14137–14161, 2021. doi: 10.1007/s11042-020-10284-y
    [31]
    M. T. Xu, H. Z. Wu, G. R. Feng, et al., “Broadcasting steganography in the blockchain,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Workshop on Digital Watermarking, Chengdu, China, pp. 256–267, 2020.
    [32]
    P. Rede, S. Iyer, S. Sharma, et al., “Blockchain based identity management system using cryptography and steganography,” in Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Information Technology, Amman, Jordan, pp. 173–177, 2023.
    [33]
    D. Silver, J. Schrittwieser, K. Simonyan, et al., “Mastering the game of go without human knowledge,” Nature, vol. 550, no. 7676, pp. 354–359, 2017. doi: 10.1038/nature24270
    [34]
    Y. Cao, “Research on carrierless steganography methods for secure covert communication,” Ph. D. Thesis, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, 2022. (in Chinese)
    [35]
    W. She, L. J. Huo, W. Liu, et al., “A blockchain-based covert communication model for hiding sensitive documents and sender identity,” Acta Electonica Sinica, vol. 50, no. 4, article no. 1002, 1013. doi: 10.12263/DZXB.20211021
    [36]
    J. Partala, “Provably secure covert communication on blockchain,” Cryptography, vol. 2, no. 3, article no. 18, 2018. doi: 10.3390/cryptography2030018
    [37]
    A. I. Basuki and D. Rosiyadi, “Joint transaction-image steganography for high capacity covert communication,” in Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Computer, Control, Informatics and its Applications, Tangerang, Indonesia, pp. 41–46, 2019.
    [38]
    S. Liu, Y. X. Liu, C. Feng, et al., “Blockchain privacy data protection method based on HEVC video steganography,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Smart BlockChain, Zhengzhou, China, pp. 1–6, 2020.
    [39]
    W. She, L. J. Huo, Z. Tian, et al., “A double steganography model combining blockchain and interplanetary file system,” Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 3029–3042, 2021. doi: 10.1007/s12083-021-01143-0
    [40]
    D. Mitic, A. Lebl, B. Trenkić, et al., “An overview and analysis of BER for three diversity techniques in wireless communication systems,” Yugoslav Journal of Operations Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 251–269, 2015. doi: 10.2298/YJOR131120007M
    [41]
    D. Chicco, M. J. Warrens, and G. Jurman, “The coefficient of determination r-squared is more informative than SMAPE, MAE, MAPE, MSE and RMSE in regression analysis evaluation,” PeerJ Computer Science, vol. 7, article no. e623, 2021. doi: 10.7717/peerj-cs.623
    [42]
    Y. J. Luo, J. H. Qin, X. Y. Xiang, et al., “Coverless image steganography based on multi-object recognition,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 2779–2791, 2021. doi: 10.1109/TCSVT.2020.3033945
    [43]
    V. Holub and J. Fridrich, “Digital image steganography using universal distortion,” in Proceedings of the First ACM Workshop on Information Hiding and Multimedia Security, Montpellier, France, pp. 59–68, 2013.
    [44]
    V. Holub and J. Fridrich, “Designing steganographic distortion using directional filters,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Workshop on Information Forensics and Security, Costa Adeje, Spain, pp. 234–239, 2012.
    [45]
    T. Pevný, T. Filler, and P. Bas, “Using high-dimensional image models to perform highly undetectable steganography,” in Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Information Hiding, Calgary, Canada, pp. 161–177, 2010.
    [46]
    V. Sedighi, R. Cogranne, and J. Fridrich, “Content-adaptive steganography by minimizing statistical detectability,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 221–234, 2016. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2015.2486744
    [47]
    M. Boroumand, M. Chen, and J. Fridrich, “Deep residual network for steganalysis of digital images,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1181–1193, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2018.2871749
    [48]
    R. Zhang, F. Zhu, J. Y. Liu, et al., “Depth-wise separable convolutions and multi-level pooling for an efficient spatial CNN-based steganalysis,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 15, pp. 1138–1150, 2020. doi: 10.1109/TIFS.2019.2936913
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(8)  / Tables(3)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (116) PDF downloads(17) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return