Volume 31 Issue 3
May  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
LU Xuyang, Venkatesh Suresh, Saeidi Hooman, Sengupta Kaushik. Integrated Intelligent Electromagnetic Radiator Design for Future THz Communication: A Review[J]. Chinese Journal of Electronics, 2022, 31(3): 499-515. doi: 10.1049/cje.2021.00.324
Citation: LU Xuyang, Venkatesh Suresh, Saeidi Hooman, Sengupta Kaushik. Integrated Intelligent Electromagnetic Radiator Design for Future THz Communication: A Review[J]. Chinese Journal of Electronics, 2022, 31(3): 499-515. doi: 10.1049/cje.2021.00.324

Integrated Intelligent Electromagnetic Radiator Design for Future THz Communication: A Review

doi: 10.1049/cje.2021.00.324
Funds:  This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2020YFB1807304), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (62101323), the Guangdong Provincial Key-Field Research Program (2018B010115001), the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (21YF1421300), the Open Project of Guangdong Province Key Lab of Display Material and Technology (2020B1212060030), the Joint Foundation of Key Laboratory of Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Xidian University, Ministry of Education (1015/10241200005)
More Information
  • Author Bio:

    (corresponding author) received the B.S degree in electrical engineering from Rice University, Houston, Tx, USA, in 2014, and the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA, in 2016 and 2020, respectively. He joined as a Faculty Member with the University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, in 2021. His research interests include high-speed programmable RF and mmWave integrated systems, integrated terahertz systems, integrated photonics, on-chip antenna optimization, and machine-learning in analog circuit design. (Email: xuyang.lu@sjtu.edu.cn)

    received the M.S. degree in electrical and computer engineering from North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA, in 2010, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical and computer engineering from The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, in 2017, under the guidance of Prof. David Schurig. He is currently a Post-Doctoral Researcher at the Integrated Micro-systems Research Lab, Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. He was also a Research Project Assistant at the Molecular Astronomy Laboratory, Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru, India, from 2007 to 2008, where he worked on 10.4-m millimeter-wave radio telescope. His research interests are in electromagnetics, metamaterials, antenna design, integrated circuits, computational imaging, and transformation optics design. Dr. Venkatesh received the ECE Outstanding Dissertation Award in 2016 for his Ph.D. dissertation. He is an active IEEE MTTS volunteer and is serving as the IEEE MTTS YP Region 1–6 coordinator. (Email: sureshv@princeton.edu)

    received the B.S. degree from the Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in June 2017. He is currently pursuing the Ph.D. degree at ECE Department, Princeton University and his current research interest includes programmability and reconfigurability in novel chip-scale mm-wave and THz systems. He is the Recipient of the Princeton University EE Department 2019 Early Stage Career Award, 2020 Analog Devices Outstanding Student Designer Award, and 2020 Electrical Engineering Department Teaching Award. (Email: hsaeidi@princeton.edu)

    received the B.Tech. and M.Tech. degrees in electronics and electrical communication engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India, in 2007, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA, in 2008 and 2012, respectively. He performed research with the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, in 2005 and 2006, respectively, where he was involved in nonlinear integrated systems for high-purity signal generation and low-power RF identification tags. He joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA, as a Faculty Member, in 2013, where he is currently an Associate Professor and the Director of graduate studies. His current research interests include high-frequency ICs, electromagnetics, and optics for various applications in sensing, imaging, and high-speed communication. (Email: kaushiks@princeton.edu)

  • Received Date: 2021-08-31
  • Accepted Date: 2021-12-28
  • Available Online: 2022-02-24
  • Publish Date: 2022-05-05
  • Advances in 6G communication changes how machines and humans interact. The blossom of new applications demands significantly higher data bandwidth while preserving the mobility and sustainability of electronic wireless communication systems. It also demands an integrable system that allows convenient interactions between communication units and signal processing units. A review of CMOS-based THz communication system solutions is presented, with a focus on novel systematic EM-circuit co-design philosophy. This review starts with a review of THz power generation, followed by the discussion of THz localization and THz beamforming for efficient high-throughput communication.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Daniel M Mittleman, “Perspective: Terahertz science and technology,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol.122, no.23, article no.230901, 2017. doi: 10.1063/1.5007683
    Chong Han, Yongzhi Wu, Zhi Chen, and Xudong Wang, “Terahertz communications (teracom): Challenges and impact on 6G wireless systems,” arXiv preprint, arXiv: 1912.06040, 2019.
    Ian F Akyildiz, Josep Miquel Jornet, and Chong Han, “Terahertz band: Next frontier for wireless communications,” Physical communication, vol.12, pp.16–32, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.phycom.2014.01.006
    Yi Chen, Chong Han, Ziming Yu, and Guangjian Wang, “140 GHz channel measurement and characterization in an offce room,” in Proceedings of ICC 2021-IEEE International Conference on Communications, Montreal, QC, Canada, pp.1–6, 2021.
    Xuyang Lu, Suresh Venkatesh, and Hooman Saeidi, “A review on applications of integrated terahertz systems,” China Communications, vol.18, no.5, pp.175–201, 2021. doi: 10.23919/JCC.2021.05.011
    Kaushik Sengupta, Hooman Saeidi, Xuyang Lu, et al., “Terahertz chipscale systems,” in Proceedings of 2020 European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC), Brussels, Belgium, pp.1–3, 2020.
    Imran Mehdi, Jose V. Siles, Choonsup Lee, and Erich Schlecht, “THz diode technology: Status, prospects, and applications,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.105, no.6, pp.990–1007, 2017. doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2017.2650235
    Gintaras Valušis, Alvydas Lisauskas, Hui Yuan, et al., “Roadmap of terahertz imaging 2021,” Sensors, vol.21, no.12, pp.40–92, 2021. doi: 10.3390/s21124092
    Michael Schroter, Tommy Rosenbaum, Pascal Chevalier, Bernd Heinemann, Sorin P. Voinigescu, Ed Preisler, et al., “Sige HBT technology: Future trends and TCAD-based roadmap,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.105, no.6, pp.1068–1086, 2017. doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2015.2500024
    Shiao-Li Tsao and Chung-Huei Huang, “A survey of energy effcient MAC protocols for IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” Computer Communications, vol.34, no.1, pp.54–67, 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.comcom.2010.09.008
    Thomas Zimmer, Josef Böck, Fred Buchali, Pascal Chevalier, Michael Collisi, Björn Debaillie, Marina Deng, et al., “SiGe HBTs and BiCMOS technology for present and future millimeter-wave systems,” IEEE Journal of Microwaves, vol.1, no.1, pp.288–298, 2021. doi: 10.1109/JMW.2020.3031831
    Mladen Božanić and Saurabh Sinha, “Emerging transistor technologies capable of terahertz amplification: A way to re-engineer terahertz radar sensors,” Sensors, vol.19, no.11, pp.24–54, 2019. doi: 10.3390/s19112454
    Zhongqian Niu, Bo Zhang, Jiale Wang, Ke Liu, Zhi Chen, Ke Yang, Zhen Zhou, et al., “The research on 220 GHz multicarrier high-speed communication system,” China Communications, vol.17, no.3, pp.131–139, 2020. doi: 10.23919/JCC.2020.03.011
    I Kallfass, A Tessmann, H Massler, D Lopez-Diaz, A Leuther, M Schlechtweg, and O Ambacher, “A 300 GHz active frequency-doubler and integrated resistive mixer MMIC,” in Proceedings of 2009 European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference (EuMIC), Rome, Italy, pp.200–203, 2009.
    Hadi Bameri and Omeed Momeni, “A 200-GHz power amplifier with a wideband balanced slot power combiner and 9.4-dBm P sat in 65-nm CMOS: Embedded power amplification,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.56, no.11, pp.3318–3330, 2021.
    Ulrich J. Lewark, Axel Tessmann, Hermann Massler, Arnulf Leuther, and Ingmar Kallfass, “Active single ended frequency multiplier-by-nine MMIC for millimeter-wave imaging applications,” in Proceedings of 2011 Workshop on Integrated Nonlinear Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Circuits, Vienna, Austria, pp.1–4, 2011.
    Nadav Mazor and Eran Socher, “Analysis and design of an X-band-to-W-band CMOS active multiplier with improved harmonic rejection,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol.61, no.5, pp.1924–1933, 2013. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2013.2252914
    Daquan Huang, Tim R. LaRocca, Mau-Chung Frank Chang, et al., “Terahertz CMOS frequency generator using linear superposition technique,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.43, no.12, pp.2730–2738, 2008. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2008.2004868
    Tushar Sharma, Zheng Liu, Chandrakanth R Chappidi, Hooman Saeidi, et al., “Broadband PA architectures with asymmetrical combining and stacked PA cells across 50-70 GHz and 64-110 GHz in 250 nm InP,” in Proceedings of 2020 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) , Los Angeles, CA, USA, pp.405–408, 2020.
    Xuyang Lu, Suresh Venkatesh, Bingjun Tang, and Kaushik Sengupta, “4.6 space-time modulated 71-to-76 GHz mm-wave transmitter array for physically secure directional wireless links,” in Proceedings of 2020 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, USA, pp.86–88, 2020.
    Zheng Liu, Tushar Sharma, Chandrakanth Reddy Chappidi, Suresh Venkatesh, Yiming Yu, and Kaushik Sengupta, “A 42-62 GHz transformer-based broadband mm-Wave InP PA with second-harmonic waveform engineering and enhanced linearity,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol.69, no.1, pp.756–773, 2020.
    Zheng Liu, Tushar Sharma, Chandrakanth R Chappidi, et al., “Transformer-based broadband mm-wave inp pa across 42-62 GHz with enhanced linearity and second harmonic engineering,” in Proceedings of 2020 IEEE/MTTS International Microwave Symposium (IMS), Los Angeles, CA, USA, pp.1295–1298, 2020.
    Zhehao Yu, Xuyang Lu, Changzhan Gu, Suresh Venkatesh, and Junfa Mao, “mmwave spatialtemporal single harmonic switching transmitter arrays for high back-off beamforming effciency,” arXiv preprint, arXiv: 2106.16127, 2021.
    Zheng Wang, Pei-Yuan Chiang, Peyman Nazari, Chun-Cheng Wang, Zhiming Chen, and Payam Heydari, “A CMOS 210-GHz fundamental transceiver with OOK modulation,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.49, no.3, pp.564–580, 2014. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2013.2297415
    Hadi Bameri and Omeed Momeni, “A high-gain mmwave amplifier design: An analytical approach to power gain boosting,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.52, no.2, pp.357–370, 2017. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2016.2626340
    Dongfeng Ji, Bo Zhang, Yilin Yang, Zhongqian Niu, Fan Yong, and Xiaodong Chen, “A 220-GHz thirdharmonic mixer based on balanced structure and hybrid transmission line,” IEEE Access, vol.7, pp.50007–50011, 2019. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2910170
    Aravind Nagulu, Negar Reiskarimian, and Harish Krishnaswamy, “Non-reciprocal electronics based on temporal modulation,” Nature Electronics, vol.3, no.5, pp.241–250, 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41928-020-0400-5
    Y. Kanazawa, E. Sano, S. Yokoyama, P. Ambalathankandy, et al., “CMOS terahertz imaging pixel with a wideband on-chip antenna,” 2018 43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), Nagoya, Japan, pp.1–2, 2018.
    Shiji Pan and Filippo Capolino, “Design of a CMOS on-chip slot antenna with extremely flat cavity at 140 GHz,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol.10, pp.827–830, 2011. doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2011.2163291
    Mehmet Uzunkol, Ozan D. Gurbuz, Fatih Golcuk, and Gabriel M. Rebeiz, “A 0.32 THz SiGe 4 × 4 imaging array using high-effciency on-chip antennas,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.48, no.9, pp.2056–2066, 2013. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2013.2262739
    Chunhong Chen, Xiaodong Deng, Yihu Li, Wen Wu, and Yong-Zhong Xiong, “D-band transmitter/receiver chipset with end-fire on-chip antennas using 0.13-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, vol.41, no.3, pp.322–339, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s10762-019-00665-2
    K. S. Sultan, H. H. Abdullah, E. A. Abdallah, M.A. Basha, and H. H. El-Hennawy, “A 60-GHz gain enhanced vivaldi antenna on-chip,” in Proceedings of 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, Boston, MA, USA, pp.1821–1822, 2018.
    Takuro Tajima, Toshihiko Kosugi, Ho-Jin Song, Hiroshi Hamada, Amine El Moutaouakil, Hiroki Sugiyama, et al., “Terahertz MMICs and antenna-inpackage technology at 300 GHz for kiosk download system,” Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, vol.37, no.12, pp.1213–1224, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s10762-016-0313-6
    Shukai Fan, Yongzhi Wu, Chong Han, and Xudong Wang, “A structured bidirectional LSTM deep learning method for 3D terahertz indoor localization,” in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2020-IEEE Conference on Computer Communications, Toronto, ON, Canada, pp.2381–2390, 2020.
    Hooman Saeidi, Suresh Venkatesh, Xuyang Lu, and Kaushik Sengupta, “22.1 THz prism: One-shot simultaneous multi-node angular localization using spectrum-to-space mapping with 360-to-400 GHz broadband transceiver and dual-port integrated leaky-wave antennas,” in Proceedings of 2021 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, USA, pp.314–316, 2021.
    Hooman Saeidi, Suresh Venkatesh, Xuyang Lu, and Kaushik Sengupta, “Integrated terahertz transceivers for multi-node link discovery and localization,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, J. Kang, S. Tomasulo, I. Ilev, et al., Eds., OSA Technical Digest (Optica Publishing Group, 2021), San Jose, California, USA, paper STh2F.6, 2021.
    Heng Qiao and Piya Pal, “Gridless line spectrum estimation and low-rank toeplitz matrix compression using structured samplers: A regularization-free approach,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol.65, no.9, pp.2221–2236, 2017. doi: 10.1109/TSP.2017.2659644
    Heng Qiao and Piya Pal, “On maximum-likelihood methods for localizing more sources than sensors,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol.24, no.5, pp.703–706, 2017. doi: 10.1109/LSP.2017.2690601
    Heng Qiao and Piya Pal, “Guaranteed localization of more sources than sensors with finite snapshots in multiple measurement vector models using difference co-arrays,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol.67, no.22, pp.5715–5729, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TSP.2019.2943224
    Sergi Abadal, Chong Han, and Josep Miquel Jornet, “Wave propagation and channel modeling in chipscale wireless communications: A survey from millimeter-wave to terahertz and optics,” IEEE access, vol.8, pp.278–293, 2019.
    Heng Qiao, “A universal technique for analysing discrete super-resolution algorithms,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol.27, pp.1829–1833, 2020. doi: 10.1109/LSP.2020.3029000
    Yuhang Chen, Longfei Yan, and Chong Han, “Hybrid spherical- and planar-wave modeling and DCNNpowered estimation of terahertz ultra-massive mimo channels,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol.69, no.10, pp.7063–7076, 2021. doi: 10.1109/TCOMM.2021.3098696
    Chong Han, Longfei Yan, and Jinhong Yuan, “Hybrid beamforming for terahertz wireless communications: Challenges, architectures, and open problems,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol.28, no.4, pp.198–204, 2021. doi: 10.1109/MWC.001.2000458
    Longfei Yan, Chong Han, and Jinhong Yuan, “A dynamic array-of-subarrays architecture and hybrid precoding algorithms for terahertz wireless communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.38, no.9, pp.2041–2056, 2020. doi: 10.1109/JSAC.2020.3000876
    Jie Xiong, Karthikeyan Sundaresan, and Kyle Jamieson, “Tonetrack: Leveraging frequency-agile radios for time-based indoor wireless localization,” in Proceedings of the 21st Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, New York, NY, USA, pp.537–549, 2015.
    Xuyang Lu, Xue Wu, Hooman Saeidi, and Kaushik Sengupta, “A multi-port dual polarized antenna coupled mm-wave CMOS receiver with elementlevel pattern and notch programmability and passive interferer rejection capability,” in 2019 IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC), Austin, TX, USA, pp.1–4, 2019.
    Haitham Hassanieh, Omid Abari, Michael Rodriguez, Mohammed Abdelghany, Dina Katabi, and Piotr Indyk, “Fast millimeter wave beam alignment,” in Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication, New York, NY, USA, pp.432–445, 2018.
    Wen Wu, Nan Cheng, Ning Zhang, Peng Yang, Weihua Zhuang, and Xuemin Shen, “Fast mmwave beam alignment via correlated bandit learning,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol.18, no.12, pp.5894–5908, 2019. doi: 10.1109/TWC.2019.2940454
    Jianjun Ma, Rabi Shrestha, Jacob Adelberg, Chia-Yi Yeh, Zahed Hossain, Edward Knightly, Josep Miquel Jornet, and Daniel M Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature, vol.563, no.7729, pp.89–93, 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0609-x
    Hichem Guerboukha, Rabi Shrestha, Joshua Neronha, Olivia Ryan, Malachi Hornbuckle, Zhaoji Fang, and Daniel M Mittleman, “Effcient leaky-wave antenna for terahertz wireless communications,” 2021 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), IEEE, San Jose, California, USA, pp.1–2, 2021.
    Yasaman Ghasempour, Chia-Yi Yeh, Rabi Shrestha, Yasith Amarasinghe, et al., “Leakytrack: non-coherent single-antenna nodal and environmental mobility tracking with a leaky-wave antenna,” in Proceedings of SenSys’20: The 18th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Yokohama, Japan, pp.56–68, 2020.
    Hongxin Zeng, Huajie Liang, Yaxin Zhang, Lan Wang, Shixiong Liang, Sen Gong, Zheng Li, Ziqiang Yang, Xilin Zhang, Feng Lan, et al., “Highprecision digital terahertz phase manipulation within a multichannel field perturbation coding chip,” Nature Photonics, vol.15, no.10, pp.751–757, 2021.
    Kaushik Sengupta and Ali Hajimiri, “A 0.28 THz 4×4 power-generation and beam-steering array,” in Proceedings of 2012 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, pp.256–258, 2012.
    Chien-San Lin, Sheng-Fuh Chang, Chia-Chan Chang, and Yi-Hao Shu, “Design of a reflectiontype phase shifter with wide relative phase shift and constant insertion loss,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol.55, no.9, pp.1862–1868, 2007. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2007.903346
    Hooman Saeidi, Suresh Venkatesh, Chandrakanth Reddy Chappidi, Tushar Sharma, Chengjie Zhu, and Kaushik Sengupta, “29.9 A 4× 4 distributed multi-layer oscillator network for harmonic injection and THz beamforming with 14 dBm EIRP at 416 GHz in a lensless 65 nm CMOS IC,” in 2020 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, USA, pp.256–258, 2020.
    Hossein Jalili and Omeed Momeni, “23.2 A 436-to- 467 GHz lens-integrated reconfigurable radiating source with continuous 2D steering and multibeam operations in 65 nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of 2021 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, USA, pp.326–328, 2021.
    Suresh Venkatesh, Xuyang Lu, Hooman Saeidi, and Kaushik Sengupta, “A high-speed programmable and scalable terahertz holographic metasurface based on tiled CMOS chips,” Nature Electronics, vol.3, no.12, pp.785–793, 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41928-020-00497-2
    Suresh Venkatesh, Xuyang Lu, Hooman Saeidi, and Kaushik Sengupta, “Dynamically programmable terahertz holographic metasurface using CMOS IC tiling,” 2021 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), IEEE, San Jose, CA, USA, pp.1–2, 2021.
    H Guerboukha, R Shrestha, J Neronha, O Ryan, M Hornbuckle, Z Fang, and DM Mittleman, “Effcient leaky-wave antennas at terahertz frequencies generating highly directional beams,” Applied Physics Letters, vol.117, no.26, article no.261103, 2020. doi: 10.1063/5.0033126
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(26)  / Tables(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (1220) PDF downloads(47) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint