Volume 31 Issue 1
Jan.  2022
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CHEN Beijing, TAN Weijin, WANG Yiting, ZHAO Guoying. Distinguishing Between Natural and GAN-Generated Face Images by Combining Global and Local Features[J]. Chinese Journal of Electronics, 2022, 31(1): 59-67. doi: 10.1049/cje.2020.00.372
Citation: CHEN Beijing, TAN Weijin, WANG Yiting, ZHAO Guoying. Distinguishing Between Natural and GAN-Generated Face Images by Combining Global and Local Features[J]. Chinese Journal of Electronics, 2022, 31(1): 59-67. doi: 10.1049/cje.2020.00.372

Distinguishing Between Natural and GAN-Generated Face Images by Combining Global and Local Features

doi: 10.1049/cje.2020.00.372
Funds:  This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (62072251), NUIST Students’ Platform for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program (202110300022Z), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD) Fund
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  • Author Bio:

    (corresponding author) received the Ph.D. degree in computer science from Southeast University, Nanjing, China, in 2011. Now he is a Professor in School of Computer, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, China. His research interests include color image processing, image forensics, image watermarking, and pattern recognition. He serves as an Editorial Board Member of the Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision. (Email: nbutimage@126.com)

    received the M.S. degree in computer science and technology from Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, in 2011. His research interests include image forensics and image processing

    received the B.S. degree in safety engineering from Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, in 2019. Now she is pursuing the Ph.D. degree in Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK. Her research interests include machine learning and image processing

    received the Ph.D. degree in computer science from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, in 2005. She is currently a Professor with the Center for Machine Vision and Signal Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland. She is a Fellow of the IAPR. She has authored or coauthored more than 240 papers in journals and conferences. Her current research interests include image and video descriptors, facial expression and micro-expression recognition, and person identification

  • Received Date: 2020-11-06
  • Accepted Date: 2021-07-05
  • Available Online: 2021-08-19
  • Publish Date: 2022-01-05
  • With the development of face image synthesis and generation technology based on generative adversarial networks (GANs), it has become a research hotspot to determine whether a given face image is natural or generated. However, the generalization capability of the existing algorithms is still to be improved. Therefore, this paper proposes a general algorithm. To do so, firstly, the learning on important local areas, containing many face key-points, is strengthened by combining the global and local features. Secondly, metric learning based on the ArcFace loss is applied to extract common and discriminative features. Finally, the extracted features are fed into the classification module to detect GAN-generated faces. The experiments are conducted on two publicly available natural datasets (CelebA and FFHQ) and seven GAN-generated datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves a better generalization performance with an average detection accuracy over 0.99 than the state-of-the-art algorithms. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is robust against additional attacks, such as Gaussian blur, and Gaussian noise addition.
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