2023 Vol. 32, No. 2

A Combined Countermeasure Against Side-Channel and Fault Attack with Threshold Implementation Technique
JIAO Zhipeng, CHEN Hua, FENG Jingyi, KUANG Xiaoyun, YANG Yiwei, LI Haoyuan, FAN Limin
2023, 32(2): 199-208. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.089
Abstract(4046) HTML (1770) PDF(329)
Side-channel attack (SCA) and fault attack (FA) are two classical physical attacks against cryptographic implementation. In order to resist them, we present a combined countermeasure scheme which can resist both SCA and FA. The scheme combines threshold implementation and duplication-based exchange techniques. The exchange technique can confuse the fault propagation path and randomize the faulty values. The threshold implementation technique can ensure a provable security against SCA. Moreover, it can also help to resist the FA by its incomplete property and random numbers. Compared with other methods, the proposed scheme has simple structure, which can be easily implemented in hardware and result in a low implementation cost. Finally, we present a detailed design for the block cipher light encryption device (LED) and implement it. The hardware cost evaluation shows our scheme has the minimum overhead factor.
Quantum Attacks on Type-3 Generalized Feistel Scheme and Unbalanced Feistel Scheme with Expanding Functions
ZHANG Zhongya, WU Wenling, SUI Han, WANG Bolin
2023, 32(2): 209-216. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.294
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Quantum algorithms are raising concerns in the field of cryptography all over the world. A growing number of symmetric cryptography algorithms have been attacked in the quantum setting. Type-3 generalized Feistel scheme (GFS) and unbalanced Feistel scheme with expanding functions (UFS-E) are common symmetric cryptography schemes, which are often used in cryptographic analysis and design. We propose quantum distinguishing attacks on Type-3 GFS and UFS-E in the quantum chosen plaintext attack setting. The results of key recovery are better than those based on exhaustive search in the quantum setting.
Cryptanalysis of Full-Round Magpie Block Cipher
YANG Yunxiao, SUN Bing, LIU Guoqiang
2023, 32(2): 217-224. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.209
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Magpie is a lightweight block cipher proposed by Li et al. in Acta Electronica Sinica volumn 45, issue 10. It adopts an substitution-permutation network (SPN) structure with a block size of 64 bits and the key size of 96 bits, respectively. To achieve the consistency of the encryption and decryption, which is both hardware and software friendly, 16 bits of the key are used as control signals to select S-boxes and another 16 bits of the key are used to determine the order of the operations. As the designers claimed, the security might be improved as different keys generate different ciphers. This paper analyzes the security of Magpie, studies the difference propagation of Magpie, and finally finds that the cipher has a set of 280 weak keys which makes the full-round encryption weak, and corrects the lower bound of the number of active S-boxes to 10 instead of 25 proposed by the designers. In the weak key model, the security of the cipher is reduced by the claimed 280 to only 4×216.
Differential Analysis of ARX Block Ciphers Based on an Improved Genetic Algorithm
KANG Man, LI Yongqiang, JIAO Lin, WANG Mingsheng
2023, 32(2): 225-236. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.415
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Differential cryptanalysis is one of the most critical analysis methods to evaluate the security strength of cryptographic algorithms. This paper first applies the genetic algorithm to search for differential characteristics in differential cryptanalysis. A new algorithm is proposed as the fitness function to generate a high-probability differential characteristic from a given input difference. Based on the differential of the differential characteristic found by genetic algorithm, Boolean satisfiability (SAT) is used to search all its differential characteristics to calculate the exact differential probability. In addition, a penalty-like function is also proposed to guide the search direction for the application of the stochastic algorithm to differential cryptanalysis. Our new automated cryptanalysis method is applied to SPECK32 and SPECK48. As a result, the 10-round differential probability of SPECK32 is improved to 2−30.34, and a 12-round differential of SPECK48 with differential probability 2−46.78 is achieved. Furthermore, the corresponding differential attacks are also performed. The experimental results show our method’s validity and outstanding performance in differential cryptanalysis.
Code-Based Conjunction Obfuscation
ZHANG Zheng, ZHANG Zhuoran, ZHANG Fangguo
2023, 32(2): 237-247. doi: 10.23919/cje.2020.00.377
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The pattern-matching problem with wildcards can be formulated as a conjunction where an accepting string is same as the pattern for all non-wildcards. A scheme of conjunction obfuscation is a algorithm that “encrypt” the pattern to prevent some adversary from forging any accepting string. Since 2013, there are abundant works about conjunction obfuscation which discussed with weak/strong functionality preservation and distributed black-box security. These works are based on generic group model, learning with error assumption, learning with noise assumption, etc. Our work proposes the first conjunction obfuscation with strong functionality preservation and distributed black-box security from a standard assumption. Our scheme with some parameter constraints can also resist some related attacks such as the information set decoding attack and the structured error arrack.
Remote Data Auditing for Cloud-Assisted WBANs with Pay-as-You-Go Business Model
LI Yumei, ZHANG Futai
2023, 32(2): 248-261. doi: 10.23919/cje.2020.00.314
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As an emerging technology, cloud-assisted wireless body area networks (WBANs) provide more convenient services to users. Recently, many remote data auditing protocols have been proposed to ensure the data integrity and authenticity when data owners outsourced their data to the cloud. However, most of them cannot check data integrity periodically according to the pay-as-you-go business model. These protocols also need high tag generation computation overhead, which brings a heavy burden for data owners. Therefore, we construct a lightweight remote data auditing protocol to overcome all above drawbacks. Our work can be deployed in the public environment without secret channels. It makes use of certificate-based cryptography which gets rid of certificate management problems, key escrow problems, and secret channels. The security analysis illustrates that the proposed protocol is secure. Moreover, the performance evaluation implies that our work is available in cutting down computation and communication overheads.
On the Linear Complexity of a Class of Periodic Sequences Derived from Euler Quotients
LUO Bingyu, ZHANG Jingwei, ZHAO Chang’an
2023, 32(2): 262-272. doi: 10.23919/cje.2020.00.125
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In this paper, a family of binary sequences derived from Euler quotients with RSA modulus pq is introduced. Here two primes p and q are distinct and satisfy gcd(pq, (p−1)(q−1))=1. The linear complexities and minimal polynomials of the proposed sequences are determined. Besides, this kind of sequences is shown not to have correlation of order four although there exist some special relations by the properties of Euler quotients.
Ergodic Capacity of NOMA-Based Overlay Cognitive Integrated Satellite-UAV-Terrestrial Networks
GUO Kefeng, LIU Rui, DONG Chao, AN Kang, HUANG Yuzhen, ZHU Shibing
2023, 32(2): 273-282. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.316
Abstract(2795) HTML (1229) PDF(93)
Satellite communication has become a popular study topic owing to its inherent advantages of high capacity, large coverage, and no terrain restrictions. Also, it can be combined with terrestrial communication to overcome the shortcomings of current wireless communication, such as limited coverage and high destructibility. In recent years, the integrated satellite-unmanned aerial vehicle-terrestrial networks (IS-UAV-TNs) have aroused tremendous interests to effectively reduce the transmission latency and enhance quality-of-service with improved spectrum efficiency. However, the rapidly growing access demands and conventional spectrum allocation scheme lead to the shortage of spectrum resources. To tackle the mentioned challenge, the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme and cognitive radio technique are utilized in IS-UAV-TN, which can improve spectrum utilization. In our paper, the transmission capacity of an NOMA-enabled IS-UAV-TN under overlay mode is discussed, specifically, we derive the closed-form expressions of ergodic capacity for both primary and secondary networks. Besides, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the validity of the mathematical derivations and indicate the influences of critical system parameters on transmission performance. Furthermore, the orthogonal multiple access (OMA)-based scheme is compared with our NOMA-based scheme as a benchmark, which illustrates that our proposed scheme has better performance.
MADRL-Based 3D Deployment and User Association of Cooperative mmWave Aerial Base Stations for Capacity Enhancement
ZHAO Yikun, ZHOU Fanqin, FENG Lei, LI Wenjing, YU Peng
2023, 32(2): 283-294. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.327
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Although millimeter-wave aerial base station (mAeBS) gains rich wireless capacity, it is technically difficult for deploying several mAeBSs to solve the surge of data traffic in hotspots when considering the amount of interference from neighboring mAeBS. This paper introduces coordinated multiple points transmission (CoMP) into the mAeBS-assisted network for capacity enhancement and designs a two-timescale approach for three-dimensional (3D) deployment and user association of cooperative mAeBSs. Specially, an affinity propagation clustering based mAeBS-user cooperative association scheme is conducted on a large timescale followed by modeling the capacity evaluation, and a deployment algorithm based on multi-agent (MA) deep deterministic policy gradient (MADDPG) is designed on the small timescale to obtain the 3D position of mAeBS in a distributed manner. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has significant throughput gains over conventional schemes without CoMP, and the MADDPG is more efficient than centralized deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms in deriving the solution.
Frame Synchronization Method Based on Association Rules for CNAV-2 Messages
LI Xinhao, MA Tao, QIAN Qishu
2023, 32(2): 295-302. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.148
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The GPS system is a navigation satellite system with high precision, all-weather service, and global coverage, whose main purpose is to provide real-time and continuous global navigation services for the US military, and whose signal interference in wartime is a heavy blow to the US military. Its existing interference measures are classified into two types: blanket jamming and deception jamming, with the latter having better interference effects due to its imperceptibility. Frame synchronization, as the foundation of deception jamming, is a focus of current research on navigation countermeasures. This paper discusses the frame synchronization of CNAV-2 messages in GPS L1C signals and proposes a frame synchronization algorithm based on association rules. It analyzes the structural characteristics of CNAV-1 message data, reveals the hidden mapping relationships in the BCH code sequence of the first sub-frame by applying association rules, and achieves a blind synchronization of navigation messages by counting the types of mapping relationships and calculating the confidence levels. The simulation test results show that the proposed algorithm displays high error resilience and correct recognition rates and demonstrates certain values in engineering applications.
Technique for Recovering Wavefront Phase Bad Points by Deep Learning
WU Jiali, LIANG Jingyuan, FEI Shaolong, ZHONG Xirui
2023, 32(2): 303-312. doi: 10.23919/cje.2022.00.008
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In adaptive optics systems, the bad spot detected by the wavefront detector affects the wavefront reconstruction accuracy. A convolutional neural network (CNN) model is established to estimate the missing information on bad points, reduce the reconstruction error of the distorted wavefront. By training 10,000 groups of spot array images and the corresponding 30th order Zernike coefficient samples, learns the relationship between the light intensity image and the Zernike coefficient, and predicts the Zernike mode coefficient based on the spot array image to restore the wavefront. Following the wavefront restoration of 1,000 groups of test set samples, the root mean square (RMS) error between the predicted value and the real value was maintained at approximately 0.2 μ m. Field wavefront correction experiments were carried out on three links of 600 m, 1.3 km, and 10 km. The wavefront peak-to-valley values corrected by the CNN decreased from 12.964 µ m, 13.958 µ m, and 31.310 µ m to 0.425 µ m, 3.061 µ m, and 11.156 µ m, respectively, and the RMS values decreased from 2.156 µ m, 9.158 µ m, and 12.949 µ m to approximately 0.166 µ m, 0.852 µ m, and 6.963 µ m, respectively. The results show that the CNN method predicts the missing wavefront information of the sub-aperture from the bad spot image, reduces the wavefront restoration error, and improves the wavefront correction performance.
LBA-EC: Load Balancing Algorithm Based on Weighted Bipartite Graph for Edge Computing
SHAO Sisi, LIU Shangdong, LI Kui, YOU Shuai, QIU Huajie, YAO Xiaoliang, JI Yimu
2023, 32(2): 313-324. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.289
Abstract(1082) HTML (515) PDF(46)
Compared with cloud computing environment, edge computing has many choices of service providers due to different deployment environments. The flexibility of edge computing makes the environment more complex. The current edge computing architecture has the problems of scattered computing resources and limited resources of single computing node. When the edge node carries too many task requests, the makespan of the task will be delayed. We propose a load balancing algorithm based on weighted bipartite graph for edge computing (LBA-EC), which makes full use of network edge resources, reduces user delay, and improves user service experience. The algorithm is divided into two phases for task scheduling. In the first phase, the tasks are matched to different edge servers. In the second phase, the tasks are optimally allocated to different containers in the edge server to execute according to the two indicators of energy consumption and completion time. The simulations and experimental results show that our algorithm can effectively map all tasks to available resources with a shorter completion time.
A Beam-Steering Broadband Microstrip Antenna with High Isolation
JIANG Zhaoneng, SHA Yongxin, NIE Liying, XUAN Xiaofeng
2023, 32(2): 325-333. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.452
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In this paper, a 4.2–7.2 GHz (52.6%) beam-steering microstrip antenna was proposed. The proposed antenna consists of three tapered slots and feeds. The three radiation directions of the antenna on the plane are independent of each other, and the three feeds correspond to the three radiation structures. Symmetry isolation trenches are introduced to improve isolation between different ports. Radiation pattern simulation and measurement show horizontal beam steering at the sampled frequencies of 4.2, 5, 6, and 7.2 GHz. The results shows that the overlapped beam of the three ports in the E-plane and H-plane can cover more than 200 degrees and 60 degrees, respectively. Apart from the capability of beam-steering, high isolation (more than 28 dB) of the proposed antenna in the operating band is obtained.
On-Chip Reconfigurable Microwave Photonic Processor
ZHANG Weifeng, WANG Bin
2023, 32(2): 334-342. doi: 10.23919/cje.2020.00.273
Abstract(366) HTML (182) PDF(42)
Microwave photonic processors leverage the modern photonics technique to process the microwave signal in the optical domain, featuring high speed and broad bandwidth. Based on discrete optical and microwave components, different microwave photonic processors are reported. Due to the limitation of the opto-electronic components, most of the realized processors are designed to serve a specific demand. With the booming development of photonic integrated circuits (PICs), new possibilities are opened for the implementation of integrated microwave photonic processors. By using the high-precision planar fabrication process, on-chip microwave photonic processors are enabled to have unprecedently full reconfigurability to perform multiple processing tasks. An overview regarding our recent work on reconfigurable microwave photonic processors is presented with an emphasis on silicon photonics integrated solutions.
NGD Analysis of Defected Ground and SIW-Matched Structure
GU Taochen, WAN Fayu, GE Junxiang, Lalléchère Sébastien, Rahajandraibe Wenceslas, Ravelo Blaise
2023, 32(2): 343-352. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.233
Abstract(633) HTML (319) PDF(39)
A bandpass negative group delay (NGD) passive circuit based on defect ground structure (DGS) and substrate integrated waveguide (SIW)-matched is developed in the paper. The NGD DGS topology is originally built with notched cells associated with self-matched substrate waveguide elements. The DGS design method is introduced as a function of the geometrical notched and SIW via elements. Then, parametric analyses based on full wave 3-D electromagnetic S-parameter simulations were considered to investigate the influence of DGS physical size effects. The design method feasibility study is validated with fully distributed microstrip circuit prototype. Significant bandpass NGD function performances were validated with 3-D simulations and measurements with −1.69 ns negative group delay value around 2 GHz center frequency over 33.7 MHz NGD bandwidth. Insertion loss is 4.37 dB, and reflection loss reaches 41.5 dB.
A Novel Method for Maximum Power Point Tracking of the Grid-Connected Three-Phase Solar Systems Based on the PV Current Prediction
Saeid Bairami, Mahdi Salimi, Davar Mirabbasi
2023, 32(2): 353-364. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.218
Abstract(565) HTML (274) PDF(55)
In this paper, it is first attempted to provide a small signal model of the photovoltaic (PV) system, DC-DC boost converter, and pulse width modulation (PWM) generator. Then, a technique is provided for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in grid-connected solar systems based on variable and adaptive perturbation and observation with predictive control of the PV current. An innovative aspect of the proposed predictive current control method is to use the current controller to achieve the value of PV impedance, which has been used in DC-DC boost converter. The proposed method is to obtain the coming current value on the basis of the current predictive model. The goal of the proposed method is to make the DC-DC boost converter inductor current track the current reference. Voltage and current ripple minimization is added to the cost function simultaneously as a system constraint to optimize system performance. This reduces the amount of voltage and current fluctuations around the maximum power point. The proposed method is capable of detecting rapid changes in solar radiation. A sudden and simultaneous increase in voltage and current is detected by the algorithm and then the duty cycle becomes increasing instead of decreasing. The simulation is carried out in MATLAB Simulink environment in real-time for a 26.6 kW three-phase grid-connected solar system. The simulation results of current predictive control are compared with perturbation and observation techniques and linear voltage and current proportional integral derivative (PID) controller-based adaptive control. The results show that the total harmonic distortion (THD%) of the inverter voltage with proposed method has been reduced by 0.16% compared to the PID method. In addition, the THD% of the current in the proposed method is reduced by 0.1% compared to the PID method. The solar system output voltage variation of the proposed method is less than 5 V.
Modeling and Measurement of 3D Solenoid Inductor Based on Through-Silicon Vias
YIN Xiangkun, WANG Fengjuan, ZHU Zhangming, Vasilis F. Pavlidis, LIU Xiaoxian, LU Qijun, LIU Yang, YANG Yintang
2023, 32(2): 365-374. doi: 10.23919/cje.2020.00.340
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Through-silicon via (TSV) provides vertical interconnectivity among the stacked dies in three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) and is a promising option to minimize 3D solenoid inductors for on-chip radio-frequency applications. In this paper, a rigorous analytical inductance model of 3D solenoid inductor is proposed based on the concept of loop and partial inductance. And a series of 3D samples are fabricated on 12-in high-resistivity silicon wafer using low-cost standard CMOS-compatible process. The results of the proposed model match very well with those obtained by simulation and measurement. With this model, the inductance can be estimated accurately and efficiently over a wide range of inductor windings, TSV height, space, and pitch.
An Improved Path Delay Variability Model via Multi-Level Fan-Out-of-4 Metric for Wide-Voltage-Range Digital CMOS Circuits
CUI Yuqiang, SHAN Weiwei, DAI Wentao, LIU Xinning, GUO Jingjing, CAO Peng
2023, 32(2): 375-388. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.447
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In advanced CMOS technology, process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations increase the paths’ latency in digital circuits, especially when operating at a low supply voltage. The fan-out-of-4 inverter chain (FO4 chain) metric has been proven to be a good metric to estimate the path’s delay variability, whereas the previous work ignored the non-independent characteristic between the adjacent cells in a path. In this study, an improved model of path delay variability is established to describe the relationship between the paths’ max-delay variability and an FO4 chain, which is based on multilevel FO4 metric and circuit-level parameters knobs (i.e., cell topology and driving strength) of the first few cells. We take the slew and load into account to improve the accuracy of this framework. Examples of 28 nm and 40 nm digital circuits show that our model conforms with Monte Carlo simulations as well as fabricated chips’ measurements. It is able to model the delay variability effectively to speed up the design process with limited accuracy loss. It also provides a deeper understanding and quick estimation of the path delay variability from the near-threshold to nominal voltages.
Analysis of Capacitance Characteristics of Light-Controlled Electrostatic Conversion Device
LIU Yujie, WANG Yang, JIN Xiangliang, PENG Yan, LUO Jun, YANG Jun
2023, 32(2): 389-396. doi: 10.23919/cje.2021.00.272
Abstract(2934) HTML (1404) PDF(43)
In recent years, converting environmental energy into electrical energy to meet the needs of modern society for clean and sustainable energy has become a research hotspot. Electrostatic energy is a pollution-free environmental energy source. The use of electrostatic conversion devices to convert electrostatic energy into electrical energy has been proven to be a feasible solution to meet sustainable development. This paper proposes a light-controlled electrostatic conversion device (LCECD). When static electricity comes, an avalanche breakdown occurs inside the LCECD and a low resistance path is generated to clamp the voltage, thereby outputting a smooth square wave of voltage and current. Experiments have proved that LCECD can convert 30kV electrostatic pulses into usable electrical energy for the normal operation of the back-end light-emitting diode lights. In addition, the LCECD will change the parasitic capacitance after being exposed to light. For different wavelengths of light, the parasitic capacitance exhibited by the device will also be different. The smaller the parasitic capacitance of the LCECD, the higher the efficiency of its electrostatic conversion. This is of great significance to the design of electrostatic conversion devices in the future.